Therapeutic options in treatment-resistant depression.
ABSTRACT The phenomenon of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), described as the occurrence of an inadequate response after an adequate treatment with antidepressant agents (in terms of dose, duration, and adherence), is very common in clinical practice. It has been broadly defined in the context of unipolar major depression, but alternative definitions for bipolar depression have also been suggested. In both cases, there is a remarkable lack of consensus amongst professionals concerning its operative definition. A relatively wide variety of treatment options for unipolar TRD are available, whilst the evidence is very scanty for bipolar TRD. TRD is associated to poor clinical, functional, and social outcomes. Several novel therapeutic options are currently being investigated as promising alternatives, targeting the neurotransmitter system outside of the standard monoamine hypothesis. Augmentation or combination with lithium or atypical antipsychotics appears as a valid option for both conditions, and the same occurs with electroconvulsive therapy. Other non-pharmacological strategies such as deep brain stimulation may be promising alternatives for the future. The use of cognitive behaviour therapy is recommended for unipolar TRD, but there is no evidence supporting its use in bipolar TRD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eduard Vieta, Aug 15, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Chiara Rapinesi
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ABSTRACT: Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the use of pindolol augmentation in depressed patients resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy.MethodsA comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases from 1970 through December 2013 was conducted. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studied on unipolar SSRI-resistant depressed adults were included. The primary outcome was mean change scores of depressive symptom on the depression rating scales, assessed with standardized mean differences.ResultsFive RCTs consisting of 154 patients met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The overall pooled effect size in the primary and secondary efficacy analysis showed no significant effects of pindolol plus SSRI therapy (standardized mean difference = −0.43, p = 0.24; OR = 1.92, p = 0.39, respectively). In terms of acceptability, there was no statistical difference in either tolerability or safety between the two groups (OR = 0.46, p = 0.40; OR = 0.90, p = 0.94, respectively). These estimates remained robust through several sensitivity and subgroup analyses, except 7.5 mg-qd pindolol augmentation did show a significant benefit over 2.5-mg tid pindolol augmentation.Conclusions Pindolol augmentation may not be suitable for treatment-resistant depression patients with SSRI-resistant depression. However, once-daily high-dose pindolol (7.5 mg qd) appears to show a promising benefit in these patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 02/2015; 30(3). DOI:10.1002/hup.2465 · 1.85 Impact Factor
Article: Response to kotzalidis et Al.