We have previously shown that exposure of mesothelial cells (MC) to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) not only caused toxic injury, but also induced cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSP). This study was performed in order to compare HSP expression in MC upon PDF exposure in three currently used biocompatibility test systems.
Omentum-derived human peritoneal MC underwent 3 modalities of exposure to heat- or filter-sterilized PDF: (A) pure PDF for 60 minutes followed by a recovery-period in pure culture medium for 24 hours; (B) 1:1 mixture of PDF and culture medium for 24 hours or (C) pure PDF for 60 minutes followed by a recovery-period in a 1:1 mixture of PDF and culture medium for 24 hours. Biocompatibility was assessed by LDH-release into the supernatant and HSP-72 expression in MC lysates.
Short-term exposure of MC to pure PDF (Modality A) resulted in concordant LDH release and upregulation of HSP-72, regardless of heat or filter sterilization. In contrast, both test systems that exposed MC to heat-sterilized PDF during the recovery period (Modalities B and C) resulted in severe cellular lethality but low HSP-72 expression.
This study clearly shows that HSP expression in MC upon PDF exposure depends on the biocompatibility test system. The presence of heat-sterilized PDF during recovery resulted in significant downregulation of Hsp-72 despite severe cell injury. Therefore, Hsp-72 expression reflects adequate cellular stress responses rather than PDF cytotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) contributes to mesothelial injury. We investigated whether the heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, HSP-72, and HSP-90 are differentially induced upon exposure of mesothelial cells to PDF and whether this was affected by selective modulation of the physicochemical properties of PDF.
Human mesothelial cells (Met5A and primary human mesothelial cells) were exposed to acidic lactate and glucose-monomer based PDF (CAPD2 and CAPD3), to control culture media, or to a neutral lactate and glucose-monomer-based PDF with reduced levels of glucose degradation products (BALANCE). Expression of HSP-27, HSP-72, and HSP-90 and cellular distribution of HSP-72 were assessed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry.
Mesothelial cells exhibited strong constitutive expression of HSP-27 and to a lesser extent HSP-72 and HSP-90. Exposure of the cells to CAPD2 and CAPD3 resulted in strong up-regulation of HSP-72. HSP-27 levels were slightly increased, but HSP-90 levels were unchanged upon exposure to CAPD2 or CAPD3. In contrast, exposure of the cells to BALANCE did not affect HSP-27 or HSP-72 expression. The acidic pH and glucose degradation products were found to be principal in mediating increased HSP-72 expression upon exposure to PDF.
Analysis of HSP expression represents a novel tool to assess biocompatibility of PDF. Among the HSP investigated, HSP-72 is the most predictive and accurate parameter to assess mesothelial cell injury in the early phase of exposure to PDF.
Kidney International 12/2001; 60(5). DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00004.x · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis is complicated by mesothelial cell injury due to low biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). We have previously demonstrated that heat shock protein (HSP)-72 is potently up-regulated in response to PDF exposure of mesothelial cells in in vitro and in vivo models of peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential cytoprotective effects of overexpression of HSP-72.
Cytoprotection was assessed by comparing cellular viability between pretreated versus nonpretreated human mesothelial cells (Met 5a; ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA, and primary cell cultures) subjected to extended, usually lethal PDF exposure times (120 min, CAPD2; Fresenius, Bad Homburg, Germany). Pretreatment was performed with exposure to PDF (60 min, CAPD2; Fresenius) or heat (15 min, 41.5 degrees C), and by transient transfection with HSP-72.
When mesothelial cells were pretreated by nonlethal exposure to PDF or heat, HSP-72 was markedly up-regulated (>5-fold, P < 0.01). Pretreated human mesothelial cells were significantly protected against subsequent "lethal" exposures to PDF, as assessed by dye exclusion (>50% reduction, P < 0.05) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release (>30% reduction, P < 0.05). Comparable cytoprotection (50% reduction by dye exclusion) was indicated by overexpression of HSP-72 in cultered human mesothelial cells (>5-fold) after transient transfection with HSP-72. This cytoprotection was confirmed at a cellular basis by double staining techniques with HSP-72 and ApopTag (apoptosis detection kit).
Our study therefore shows that the mesothelial stress response confers cytoprotection in experimental peritoneal dialysis, mediated by the induction of HSP-72, and that the stimulus of the pretreatment does not have to be identical to the subsequent injury. These data offer the basis for an attractive novel therapeutic approach against PDF toxicity.
Kidney International 12/2004; 66(6):2300-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.66040.x · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low biocompatibility of peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) injures mesothelial cells and activates their stress response. In this study, we investigated the role of heat shock proteins (HSP), the main cytoprotective effectors of the stress response, in cytoskeletal stabilization of mesothelial cells in experimental peritoneal dialysis. In cultured human mesothelial cells, cytoskeletal integrity was assessed by detergent extractability of marker proteins following in vitro PDF exposure. Effects of HSP on stabilization of ezrin were evaluated by a conditioning protocol (PDF pretreatment) and repair assay, based on coincubation of cytoskeletal protein fractions with recombinant HSP-72 or HSP-72 antibodies. In the rat model, detachment of mesothelial cells from their peritoneal monolayer during in vivo PDF exposure was assessed with and without overexpression of HSP-72 (by heat conditioning). In vitro, cytoskeletal disruption on sublethal PDF exposure was demonstrated by significantly altered detergent extractability of ezrin and ZO-1. Restoration was associated with significant induction and cytoskeletal redistribution of HSP during recovery. Both the conditioning protocol and in vitro repair assay provided evidence for HSP-72-mediated cytoskeletal stabilization. In the rat model, overexpression of HSP-72 following heat conditioning resulted in significantly reduced detachment of mesothelial cells on in vivo exposure to PDF. Our results establish an essential role of HSP in repair and cytoprotection of cytoskeletal integrity in mesothelial cells following acute in vitro and in vivo exposure to PDF. Repeated exposure to PDF, as is the rule in the clinical setting, may not only cause repeat injury to mesothelial cells but rather represents a kind of inadvertent conditioning treatment.
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 02/2007; 292(1):F47-56. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00503.2005 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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