Serum amyloid A activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes Th17 allergic asthma in mice.

Vermont Lung Center, Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 07/2011; 187(1):64-73. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1100500
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IL-1β is a cytokine critical to several inflammatory diseases in which pathogenic Th17 responses are implicated. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by microbial and environmental stimuli can enable the caspase-1-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. The acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) is highly induced during inflammatory responses, wherein it participates in systemic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Elevated levels of IL-1β, SAA, and IL-17 are present in subjects with severe allergic asthma, yet the mechanistic relationship among these mediators has yet to be identified. In this study, we demonstrate that Saa3 is expressed in the lungs of mice exposed to several mixed Th2/Th17-polarizing allergic sensitization regimens. SAA instillation into the lungs elicits robust TLR2-, MyD88-, and IL-1-dependent pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation. Furthermore, SAA drives production of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and PGE(2), causes dendritic cell (DC) maturation, and requires TLR2, MyD88, and the NLRP3 inflammasome for secretion of IL-1β by DCs and macrophages. CD4(+) T cells polyclonally stimulated in the presence of conditioned media from SAA-exposed DCs produced IL-17, and the capacity of polyclonally stimulated splenocytes to secrete IL-17 is dependent upon IL-1, TLR2, and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Additionally, in a model of allergic airway inflammation, administration of SAA to the lungs functions as an adjuvant to sensitize mice to inhaled OVA, resulting in leukocyte influx after Ag challenge and a predominance of IL-17 production from restimulated splenocytes that is dependent upon IL-1R signaling.

Download full-text


Available from: Richard A Flavell, Jun 28, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are present in the gut microbiota of a large number of vertebrate species where they are found intimately attached to the intestinal epithelium. SFB has recently attracted considerable attention due to its outstanding capacity to stimulate innate and adaptive host immune responses without causing pathology. Recent genomic analysis placed SFB between obligate and facultative symbionts, unraveled its highly auxotrophic needs, and provided a rationale for the complex SFB life-style in close contact with the epithelium. Herein, we examine how the SFB life-style may underlie its potent immunostimulatory properties and discuss how the trade-off set up between SFB and its hosts can simultaneously help to establish and maintain the ecological niche of SFB in the intestine and drive the post-natal maturation of the host gut immune barrier.
    Seminars in Immunology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.09.001 · 6.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There currently is no consensus on which immunological mechanisms can best explain the rise in atopic disease post industrialization. The hygiene hypothesis lays groundwork for our understanding of how altered microbial exposures can drive atopy; yet since its introduction increasing evidence suggests the exposure of our immune system to the intestinal microbiota plays a key role in development of atopic disease. As societal change shifts our microbial exposure, concordant shifts in the tolerant and effector functions of our immune systems give rise to more hypersensitive responses to external antigens. This is contrasted with the greater immune tolerant capabilities of individuals still living in regions with lifestyles more representative of our evolutionary history. Recent findings, buoyed by technological advances in the field, suggest a direct role for the intestinal microbiota-immune system interplay in the development of atopic disease mechanisms. Overall, harnessing current mechanistic studies for translational research into microbiota composition and function in relation to atopy have potential for the design of therapeutics that could moderate these diseases.
    Seminars in Immunology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.09.003 · 6.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The epithelium performs a balancing act at the interface between an animal and its environment to enable both pathogen killing and tolerance of commensal microorganisms. Candida albicans is a clinically important human commensal that colonizes all human mucosal surfaces, yet is largely prevented from causing mucosal infections in immune competent individuals. Despite the importance of understanding host-pathogen interactions at the epithelium, no immunocompetent vertebrate model has been used to visualize these dynamics non-invasively. Here we demonstrate important similarities between swimbladder candidiasis in the transparent zebrafish and mucosal infection at the mammalian epithelium. Specifically, in the zebrafish model we show dimorphic fungal growth, both localized and tissue-wide epithelial NF-κB activation, induction of NF-κB -dependent proinflammatory genes, and strong neutrophilia within the swimbladder. Consistent with density-dependence models of host response based primarily on tissue culture experiments, we show that only high-level infection provokes widespread activation of NF-κB in epithelial cells and induction of proinflammatory genes. Similar to what has been found using in vitro mammalian models, we find that epithelial NF-κB activation can occur at a distance from the immediate site of contact with epithelial cells. Taking advantage of the ability to non-invasively image infection and host signaling at high resolution, we also report that epithelial NF-κB activation is diminished when phagocytes control the infection. This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 05/2013; 6(5). DOI:10.1242/dmm.012039 · 5.54 Impact Factor