HDAC1 inhibition by maspin abrogates epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase pi in prostate carcinoma cells.
ABSTRACT Both maspin and glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTp) are implicated as tumor suppressors and downregulated in human prostate cancer. It is well established that GSTp downregulation is through DNA methylation-based silencing. We report here that maspin expression in prostate cancer cell line DU145 reversed GSTp DNA methylation, as measured by methylation- specific PCR, MethyLight assay, and bisulfite sequencing. The effect of maspin on GSTp expression was similar to that of the combination of a synthetic histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Maspin expression also led to an increased level of acetylated histone 3, decreased level of methyl transferase, and methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins at the site of demethylated GSTp promoter DNA. Earlier, we have shown that maspin inhibits HDAC1. In PC3 cells, where both maspin and GSTp are expressed at a reduced level, maspin knockdown led to a significant reduction in GSTp expression, whereas dual knockdown of maspin and HDAC1 barely increased the level of GSTp expression. Thus, HDAC1 may play an essential role in cellular response to maspin-mediated GSTp desilencing. Maspin has been shown to increase tumor cell sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, GSTp reexpression in the absence of maspin expression perturbation blocked the phosphorylation of histone 2A.X, the induction of hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α), and cell death of LNCaP cells under oxidative stress. Because DNA hypermethylation-based silencing may couple with and depend on histone deacetylation, our study suggests that endogenous HDAC inhibition by maspin may prevent pathologic gene silencing in prostate tumor progression.