Forkhead-associated (FHA) domain containing ABC transporter Rv1747 is positively regulated by Ser/Thr phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT One major signaling method employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is through reversible phosphorylation of proteins mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. This study concerns one of these enzymes, the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, that is encoded in an operon with Rv1747, an ABC transporter that is necessary for growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo and contains two forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. FHA domains are phosphopeptide recognition motifs that specifically recognize phosphothreonine-containing epitopes. Experiments to determine how PknF regulates the function of Rv1747 demonstrated that phosphorylation occurs on two specific threonine residues, Thr-150 and Thr-208. To determine the in vivo consequences of phosphorylation, infection experiments were performed in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in mice using threonine-to-alanine mutants of Rv1747 that prevent specific phosphorylation and revealed that phosphorylation positively modulates Rv1747 function in vivo. The role of the FHA domains in this regulation was further demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, using peptides containing both phosphothreonine residues. FHA-1 domain mutation resulted in attenuation in macrophages highlighting the critical role of this domain in Rv1747 function. A mutant deleted for pknF did not, however, have a growth phenotype in an infection, suggesting that other kinases can fulfill its role when it is absent. This study provides the first information on the molecular mechanism(s) regulating Rv1747 through PknF-dependent phosphorylation but also indicates that phosphorylation activates Rv1747, which may have important consequences in regulating growth of M. tuberculosis.
Article: Chk2 oligomerization studied by phosphopeptide ligation: implications for regulation and phosphodependent interactions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chk2/CHEK2/hCds1 is a modular serine-threonine kinase involved in transducing DNA damage signals. Phosphorylation by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) promotes Chk2 self-association, autophosphorylation, and activation. Here we use expressed protein ligation to generate a Chk2 N-terminal regulatory region encompassing a fork-head-associated (FHA) domain, a stoichiometrically phosphorylated Thr-68 motif and intervening linker. Hydrodynamic analysis reveals that Thr-68 phosphorylation stabilizes weak FHA-FHA interactions that occur in the unphosphorylated species to form a high affinity dimer. Although clearly a prerequisite for Chk2 activation in vivo, we show that dimerization modulates potential phosphodependent interactions with effector proteins and substrates through either the pThr-68 site, or the canonical FHA phosphobinding surface with which it is tightly associated. We further show that the dimer-occluded pThr-68 motif is released by intra-dimer autophosphorylation of the FHA domain at the highly conserved Ser-140 position, a major pThr contact in all FHA-phosphopeptide complex structures, revealing a mechanism of Chk2 dimer dissociation following kinase domain activation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 283(51):36019-30. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pathogenic mycobacteria resist lysosomal delivery after uptake into macrophages, allowing them to survive intracellularly. We found that the eukaryotic-like serine/threonine protein kinase G from pathogenic mycobacteria was secreted within macrophage phagosomes, inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion and mediating intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Inactivation of protein kinase G by gene disruption or chemical inhibition resulted in lysosomal localization and mycobacterial cell death in infected macrophages. Besides identifying a target for the control of mycobacterial infections, these findings suggest that pathogenic mycobacteria have evolved eukaryotic-like signal transduction mechanisms capable of modulating host cell trafficking pathways.Science 07/2004; 304(5678):1800-4. · 31.20 Impact Factor