Mechanotransduction and the regulation of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass contributes significantly to disease prevention and issues associated with the quality of life. Although the link between mechanical signals and the regulation of muscle mass has been recognized for decades, the mechanisms involved in converting mechanical information into the molecular events that control this process remain poorly defined. Nevertheless, our knowledge of these mechanisms is advancing and recent studies have revealed that signaling through a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in this event. In this review we will, (1) discuss the evidence which implicates mTOR in the mechanical regulation of skeletal muscle mass, (2) provide an overview of the mechanisms through which signaling by mTOR can be regulated, and (3) summarize our current knowledge of the potential mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling.
Article: 5-Fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), a phospholipase D pharmacological inhibitor that alters cell spreading and inhibits chemotaxis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The signaling enzyme phospholipase D (PLD) and the lipid second messenger it generates, phosphatidic acid (PA), are implicated in many cell biological processes, including Ras activation, cell spreading, stress fiber formation, chemotaxis, and membrane vesicle trafficking. PLD production of PA is inhibited by the primary alcohol 1-butanol, which has thus been widely employed to identify PLD/PA-driven processes. However, 1-butanol does not always effectively reduce PA accumulation, and its use may result in PLD-independent deleterious effects. Consequently, identification of potent specific small-molecule PLD inhibitors would be an important advance for the field. We examine one such here, 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), which was identified recently in an in vitro chemical screen for PLD2 inhibitors, and show that it rapidly blocks in vivo PA production with subnanomolar potency. We were surprised to find that several biological processes blocked by 1-butanol are not affected by FIPI, suggesting the need for re-evaluation of proposed roles for PLD. However, FIPI does inhibit PLD regulation of F-actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and chemotaxis, indicating potential utility for it as a therapeutic for autoimmunity and cancer metastasis.Molecular pharmacology 01/2009; 75(3):437-46. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interest in the regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has increased substantially in recent years largely because of an apparent link between mTOR and survival signals in human cancer cells. Much has been learned about the regulation of mTOR in response to survival signals generated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, another mechanism for regulating mTOR has been proposed involving the generation of phosphatidic acid (PA). PA is the metabolic product of phospholipase D (PLD), whose activity is elevated in a large number of human cancers, and, like PI3K, has been implicated in the survival of human cancer cells. Although the regulation of mTOR by the PI3K signaling pathway is well established, a role for PLD and PA in regulating mTOR has been controversial. In this review, the evidence implicating PLD and PA in the regulation of mTOR is summarized, and the implications of this novel and potentially important mechanism for regulating mTOR are discussed.Cancer Research 02/2007; 67(1):1-4. · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay to detect fungi in scrapings from infected corneas. A PCR assay was developed to amplify a portion of the fungal 18S ribosome gene. Corneal scrapings from 30 patients with presumed infectious keratitis were evaluated using this assay, as well as by standard microbiological techniques, and the results were compared. Conjunctival swabs from each patient's healthy, fellow eye were also evaluated by PCR. PCR and fungal culture results matched (were both positive or both negative for fungi) in 22 (74%) of 30 scrapings from infected corneas. Three (10%) of 30 samples were PCR positive but fungal culture negative; two of these appeared clinically to represent fungal infections, and the third was clinically indeterminate. Four (13%) scrapings were positive by PCR but also by bacterial and not fungal culture. One specimen (3%) was PCR negative but fungal culture positive. Of the conjunctival swabs from each patient's healthy fellow eye, five (17%) of 30 were positive by PCR, and the opposite, infected eye of all five of these harboured a fungal infection. PCR is promising as a means to diagnose fungal keratitis and offers some advantages over culture methods, including rapid analysis and the ability to analyse specimens far from where they are collected.British Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2002; 86(7):755-60. · 2.90 Impact Factor