Article

Alzheimer's disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer's patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit

Department of Psychology, P.O. Box 400400, 102 Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400, USA.
Neuropsychologia (Impact Factor: 3.45). 05/2011; 49(9):2609-18. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.05.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer's patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
171 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the role of enactment in source memory in a cognitively impaired population. As seen in healthy older adults, it was predicted that source memory in people with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) would benefit from the self-reference aspect of enactment.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 06/2014; DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbu062 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Impaired self-awareness is characteristic of nearly all dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the deficit is most severe in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The prominence of frontal pathology in bvFTD suggests that failure of online monitoring, the process by which individuals monitor their own cognitive processing in real time, is an important contributor. Metacognitive research offers several approaches to measure self-assessment, some more and others less sensitive to online monitoring. The goal of this study was to assess metacognition in bvFTD using several approaches, and to compare the results with those in AD. Method: We examined metacognition in 12 patients with bvFTD, 14 with AD, and 35 healthy controls using feeling of knowing (FOK), ease of learning (EOL), judgment of learning (JOL), and retrospective confidence rating (CR) tasks, as well as response to feedback about performance. Results: BvFTD and AD were both impaired at FOK compared with controls, although AD showed some sparing. Both groups were similarly impaired at CR and neither group was impaired at JOL after accounting for memory performance. Most striking, bvFTD patients failed to appropriately adjust their predictions about future memory performance even after receiving explicit feedback that they had performed worse than they expected. Conclusions: Both bvFTD and AD show deficits in online monitoring, although the deficit appears more severe in bvFTD. The insensitivity of bvFTD patients to overt feedback may point to unique mechanisms, possibly frontally mediated, that add to their severe lack of self-awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
    Neuropsychology 05/2014; 28(3):436. DOI:10.1037/neu0000012 · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anosognosia is a complex symptom corresponding to a lack of awareness of one's current clinical status. Anosognosia for cognitive deficits has frequently been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while unawareness of current characteristics of personality traits has rarely been considered. We used a well-established questionnaire-based method in a group of 37 AD patients and in healthy controls to probe self- and hetero-evaluation of patients' personality and we calculated differential scores between each participant's and his/her relative's judgments. A brain-behavior correlation was performed using FDG-PET images. The behavioral data showed that AD patients presented with anosognosia for current characteristics of their personality and their anosognosia was primarily explained by impaired third perspective taking. The brain-behavior correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between anosognosia for current characteristics of personality and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) activity. Behavioral and neuroimaging data are consistent with the view that impairment of different functions subserved by the dMPFC (self-evaluation, inferences regarding complex enduring dispositions of self and others, confrontation of perspectives in interpersonal scripts) plays a role in anosognosia for current characteristics of personality in AD patients.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 08/2013; 9(10). DOI:10.1093/scan/nst132 · 5.04 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
55 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014