Association between metabolic syndrome and the presence of kidney stones in a screened population.
ABSTRACT Components of metabolic syndrome have been associated with kidney stone disease, but little evidence is available to support a relationship between metabolic syndrome and kidney stone development in healthy large screened populations.
Data were obtained from 34,895 individuals who underwent general health screening tests between January 2006 and December 2006 at the Asan Medical Center.
Metabolic syndrome was defined according to criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, American Heart Association, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
The presence of kidney stones was evaluated using computed tomography or ultrasonography.
Of all those screened, 839 (2.4%) had radiologic evidence of kidney stones and metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 4,779 (13.7%). The multivariable-adjusted OR for kidney stones increased with an increasing quintile of waist circumference and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Age, sex, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome status were independent risk factors for kidney stones. The presence of metabolic syndrome had an OR of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.50) for kidney stone prevalence. In participants with hypertension, the OR for the presence of kidney stones was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.25-1.71) compared with that for participants without hypertension after adjustment for other variables.
Cross-sectional design, absence of stone composition.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with a significantly increased risk of kidney stone development. Our findings suggest the need for interventional studies to test the effects of preventing and treating metabolic syndrome on the risk of kidney stone development.