Efficient electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment via a high-performance photocatalytic fuel cell.
ABSTRACT A great quantity of wastewater were discharged into water body, causing serious environmental pollution. Meanwhile, the organic compounds in wastewater are important sources of energy. In this work, a high-performance short TiO(2) nanotube array (STNA) electrode was applied as photoanode material in a novel photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system for electricity production and simultaneously wastewater treatment. The results of current work demonstrate that various model compounds as well as real wastewater samples can be used as substrates for the PFC system. As a representative of model compounds, the acetic acid solution produces the highest cell performance with short-circuit current density 1.42 mA cm(-2), open-circuit voltage 1.48 V and maximum power density output 0.67 mW cm(-2). The STNA photoanode reveals obviously enhanced cell performance compared with TiO(2) nanoparticulate film electrode or other long nanotubes electrode. Moreover, the photoanode material, electrolyte concentration, pH of the initial solution, and cathode material were found to be important factors influencing the system performance of PFC. Therefore, the proposed fuel cell system provides a novel way of energy conversion and effective disposal mode of organics and serves well as a promising technology for wastewater treatment.
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ABSTRACT: To review retrospectively the combined clinical experience with the surgical treatment of persistently symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (SGER) in childhood from seven large children's surgery centers in the United States. During the past 20 years, 7467 children <18 years of age underwent antireflux operations for SGER at the seven participating hospitals. Fifty-six percent were neurologically normal (NN) and 44% were neurologically impaired (NI). The most frequent diagnostic studies were upper gastrointestinal series (68%), esophageal pH monitoring (54%), gastric emptying study (32%), and esophagoscopy (25%). The age at operation was under 12 months in 40% and 1 to 10 years in 48%. The type of fundoplication was Nissen (64%), Thal (34%), and Toupet (1.5%). A gastric emptying procedure was performed on 11.5% of NN patients and 40% of NI patients. Laparoscopic fundoplication was performed on 2.6% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 95% of NN and 84.6% of NI patients. Major complications occurred in 4.2% of NN and 12.8% of NI patients. The most frequent complications were recurrent reflux attributable to wrap disruption (7.1%), respiratory (4.4%), gas bloat (3.6%), and intestinal obstruction (2.6%). Postoperative death occurred in 0.07% of NN and 0.8% of NI patients. Reoperation was performed in 3.6% of NN and 11.8% of NI patients. The results and complications were similar among the participating hospitals and did not seem related to the type of fundoplication used. The excellent results (94% cure) and low morbidity with gastroesophageal fundoplication with or without a gastric emptying procedure from a large combined hospital study indicate that operation should be used early for SGER in NN children and to facilitate enteral feedings and care in NI children.Pediatrics 04/1998; 101(3 Pt 1):419-22. · 5.12 Impact Factor
- Advances in Pediatrics 01/2010; 57(1):373-89.
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ABSTRACT: Dumping syndrome and postprandial hypoglycemia have been reported after Nissen fundoplication. The physiopathologic mechanisms are poorly understood and a variety of therapies have failed to control the hypoglycemia in these patients. We report a series of 6 infants with postprandial hypoglycemia after Nissen fundoplication who were treated successfully with acarbose.Journal of Pediatrics 01/2002; 139(6):877-9. · 4.04 Impact Factor