Pulmonary maturational arrest and death in a patient with pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis
ABSTRACT We present the clinical presentation and pathological findings from a term infant with atypical neonatal lung disease. A full term Caucasian male presented at birth with signs of respiratory distress. The respiratory condition continued to deteriorate despite maximum intervention and the patient was placed on ECMO for further cardiorespiratory assistance. An open lung biopsy demonstrated findings consistent with severe lung growth abnormality with non-uniform pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The patient consequently developed a pulmonary hemorrhage that required discontinuation of ECMO. The patient died shortly after decannulation. Most literature suggests that PIG is one of the few pediatric interstitial lung diseases that has a favorable prognosis with rare mortality in the absence of co-morbidities. However, the current case suggests prognosis may depend more on the underlying diagnosis than on the histological finding of PIG. In addition, this case may provide insight into the pathogenesis and potential modifiers of this idiopathic disorder.
SourceAvailable from: Mateja Cernelc-kohan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Advances in genetics and clinical diagnostics, along with recently described clinical entities and refined classification schemes, have improved our understanding of diffuse and interstitial lung diseases in children. This review presents recent updates in these disorders in the context of systemic inflammatory conditions. Classification of childhood diffuse lung disease (DLD) using adult paradigms is not useful. Distinct clinical-pathologic entities exist in children. Infants are more likely to present with genetic and developmental disorders, and older children with inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions. A combination of clinical evaluation, high-resolution computed tomography scanning, pulmonary function testing and serology, with bronchoscopy and surgical lung biopsy in selected cases, is most useful in the evaluation of DLD in the context of rheumatologic conditions. Common causes of DLD, such as infection, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency, must be ruled out. Optimal therapy for specific disorders will require careful analysis of data from national registries. Emerging use of biomarkers and high-throughput molecular analysis will yield novel insight into these disorders. In the setting of known or suspected rheumatologic disorders, diagnosis and management of DLD are challenging, and require close collaboration among rheumatologists, pulmonologists, and other specialists.Current opinion in rheumatology 07/2012; 24(5):530-40. DOI:10.1097/BOR.0b013e328356813e · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Pediatric diffuse lung diseases are rare disorders with an onset in the neonatal period or in infancy, characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse interstitial changes on imaging studies. Genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis represent the main etiology. Surfactant protein B and ABCA3 deficiencies typically cause neonatal respiratory failure, which is often lethal within a few weeks or months. Although heterozygous ABCA3 mutation carriers are mostly asymptomatic, there is growing evidence that monoallelic mutations may affect surfactant homeostasis. Surfactant protein C mutations are dominant or sporadic disorders leading to a broad spectrum of manifestations from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to adult pulmonary fibrosis. The authors performed pathology and ultrastructural studies in 12 infants who underwent clinical lung biopsy. One carried a heterozygous SP-B mutation, 3 carried SP-C mutations, and 7 carried ABCA3 mutations (5 biallelic and 2 monoallelic). Optical microscopy made it possible to distinguish between surfactant-related disorders and other forms. One of the ABCA3 monoallelic carriers had morphological features of alveolar capillary dysplasia, a genetic disorder of lung alveolar, and vascular development. One patient showed no surfactant-related anomalies but had pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, a developmental disorder of unknown origin. Electron microscopy revealed specific lamellar bodies anomalies in all SP-B, SP-C, and ABCA3 deficiency cases. In addition, the authors showed that heterozygous ABCA3 mutation carriers have an intermediate ultrastructural phenotype between homozygous carriers and normal subjects. Lung biopsy is an essential diagnostic procedure in unexplained diffuse lung disorders, and electron microscopy should be performed systematically, since it may reveal specific alterations in genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis.Ultrastructural Pathology 10/2013; 37(5):356-65. DOI:10.3109/01913123.2013.811454 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe an infant prenatally diagnosed with hydrops fetalis ultimately found to have Noonan syndrome (NS). Prior to genetic confirmation of diagnosis, lung biopsy was performed which revealed widespread pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG), abnormal alveolarization, and mild inflammation. Although genetic alterations have been identified in NS, the mutations are heterogeneous and the diagnosis remains one of clinical suspicion. The combination of PIG and NS has not yet been documented in the literature. While the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of PIG is unclear, we suggest that the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway members (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, RAF1, SHOC2, NRAS) involved in cellular growth factor signaling, which are affected in NS, can provide clues. In addition, this case demonstrates that empiric corticosteroids can be considered in complicated cases since biopsy did reveal an inflammatory component, not typically noted in PIG. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Pediatric Pulmonology 05/2014; 49(5). DOI:10.1002/ppul.22871 · 2.30 Impact Factor