A new interpretation of stomatogenesis in a peritrich ciliate: using Campanella umbellaria as a model system.
ABSTRACT The process of stomatogenesis in peritrich ciliates is still incompletely understood. Previous studies on the stomatogenesis of four species of peritrichs, Telotrochidium sp., Carchesium polypinum, Opercularia coarctata, and Astylozoon pyriforme conflict with one another in some cases and omit details of events in others. We described the entire process of stomatogenesis in the peritrich ciliate Campanella umbellaria (C. umbellaria) using an improved method of staining with protargol. Our results disagree with some previous studies with regard to the formation of some rudimentary structures, reorganization of the parental haplokinety, formation of new germinal rows, and separation of daughter oral complexes. The pattern of stomatogenesis characteristic of peritrichs is compared to the stomatogenetic patterns of three other oligohymenophorean subclasses and a hypothesis about the evolution of stomatogenesis in the class Oligohymenophorea is offered. Details of stomatogenesis need to be described and verified in a greater variety of peritrichs to clarify possible differences between taxa and make it possible to relate stomatogenesis to evolution within the subclass Peritrichia. Ultrastructural studies are the next step in description of morphogenetic processes in peritrichs, and characteristics of C. umbellaria make it a useful model for this work.
- Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 11/1968; 87(4):493-509.
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ABSTRACT: The peritrichs have been recognized as a higher taxon of ciliates since 1968. However, the phylogenetic relationships among them are still unsettled, and their placement within the class Oligohymenophorea has only been supported by the analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene sequence of Opisthonecta henneguyi. DNA was isolated directly from field-sampled species for PCR, and was used to resolve relationships within the genus Epistylis and to confirm the stability of the placement of peritrichs. Small subunit rRNA gene sequences of Epistylis plicatilis, Epistylis urceolata, Epistylis chrysemydis, Epistylis hentscheli, Epistylis wenrichi, and Vorticella campanula were sequenced and analyzed using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony methods. In phylogenetic trees, the monophyly of both the genus Episrylis and the subclass Peritrichia was strongly supported, while V. campanula clustered with Vorticella microstoma. The topology in which E. plicatilis and E. hentscheli formed a strongly supported sister clade to E. urceolata, E. chrysemydis, and E. wenrichi was consistent with variations in the thickness of the peristomial lip. We concluded that the peristomial area, especially the peristomial lip, might be the important phylogenetic character within the genus Epistylis.Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 01/2001; 48(5):583-7. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationships among peritrichs remain unresolved. In this study, the complete small subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene sequences of seven species (Epistylis galea, Campanella umbellaria, Carchesium polypinum, Zoothamnium arbuscula, Vaginicola crystallina, Ophrydium versatile, and Opercularia microdiscum) were determined. Trees were constructed using distance-matrix, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods, all of which strongly supported the monophyly of the subclass Peritrichia. Within the peritrichs, 1) E. galea grouped with Opercularia microdiscum and Campanella umbellaria but not the other Epistylis species, which indicates that the genus Epistylis might not be monophyletic; 2) the topological position of Carchesium and Campanella suggested that Carchesium should be placed in the family Zoothamniidae, or be elevated to a higher taxonomic rank, and that Campanella should be independent of the family Epistylididae, and probably be given a new rank; and 3) Opisthonecta grouped strongly with Astylozoon, which suggested that Opisthonecta species were not the ancestors of the stalked peritrichs.Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51(2):180-6. · 2.16 Impact Factor