IGF binding protein-6 expression in vascular endothelial cells is induced by hypoxia and plays a negative role in tumor angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia stimulates tumor angiogenesis by inducing the expression of angiogenic molecules. The negative regulators of this process, however, are not well understood. Here, we report that hypoxia induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6), a tumor repressor, in human and rodent vascular endothelial cells (VECs) via a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated mechanism. Addition of human IGFBP-6 to cultured human VECs inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. An IGFBP-6 mutant with at least 10,000-fold lower binding affinity for IGFs was an equally potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, suggesting that this action of IGFBP-6 is IGF-independent. The functional relationship between IGFBP-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major hypoxia-inducible angiogenic molecule, was examined. While VEGF alone increased angiogenesis in vitro, co-incubation with IGFBP-6 abolished VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis. The in vivo role of IGFBP-6 in angiogenesis was tested in flk1:GFP zebrafish embryos, which exhibit green fluorescence protein in developing vascular endothelium, permitting visualization of developing blood vessels. Injection of human IGFBP-6 mRNA reduced the number of embryonic inter-segmental blood vessels by ∼40%. This anti-angiogenic activity is conserved in zebrafish because expression of zebrafish IGFBP-6b had similar effects. To determine the anti-angiogenic effect of IGFBP-6 in a tumor model, human Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells stably transfected with IGFBP-6 were inoculated into athymic BALB/c nude mice. Vessel density was 52% lower in IGFBP-6-transfected xenografts than in vector control xenografts. These results suggest that the expression of IGFBP-6 in VECs is up-regulated by hypoxia and IGFBP-6 inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are essential mediators of the cellular oxygen-signaling pathway. They are heterodimeric transcription factors consisting of an oxygen-sensitive alpha subunit (HIF-alpha) and a constitutive beta subunit (HIF-beta) that facilitate both oxygen delivery and adaptation to oxygen deprivation by regulating the expression of genes that control glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In most experimental models, the HIF pathway is a positive regulator of tumor growth as its inhibition often results in tumor suppression. In clinical samples, HIF is found elevated and correlates with poor patient prognosis in a variety of cancers. In summary, HIF regulates multiple aspects of tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, metastasis, differentiation, and response to radiation therapy, making it a critical regulator of the malignant phenotype.Cell Death and Differentiation 05/2008; 15(4):678-85. · 8.85 Impact Factor
Article: Inhibition of oxygen sensors as a therapeutic strategy for ischaemic and inflammatory disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cells in the human body need oxygen to function and survive, and severe deprivation of oxygen, as occurs in ischaemic heart disease and stroke, is a major cause of mortality. Nevertheless, other organisms, such as the fossorial mole rat or diving seals, have acquired the ability to survive in conditions of limited oxygen supply. Hypoxia tolerance also allows the heart to survive chronic oxygen shortage, and ischaemic preconditioning protects tissues against lethal hypoxia. The recent discovery of a new family of oxygen sensors--including prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins 1-3 (PHD1-3)--has yielded exciting novel insights into how cells sense oxygen and keep oxygen supply and consumption in balance. Advances in understanding of the role of these oxygen sensors in hypoxia tolerance, ischaemic preconditioning and inflammation are creating new opportunities for pharmacological interventions for ischaemic and inflammatory diseases.dressNature Reviews Drug Discovery 02/2009; 8(2):139-52. · 29.01 Impact Factor
Article: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent mechanisms of vascularization and vascular remodelling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The vascular system delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the vertebrate organism. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of hypoxic/ischaemic vascular responses, driving transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in vascular reactivity, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and the mobilization and homing of bone marrow-derived angiogenic cells. This review will focus on the pivotal role of HIF-1 in vascular homeostasis, the involvement of HIF-1 in vascular diseases, and recent advances in targeting HIF-1 for therapy in preclinical models.Cardiovascular research 02/2010; 86(2):236-42. · 5.80 Impact Factor