Serum Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cortisol to Sulfate of Dehydroepiandrosterone Molar Ratio Associated With Clinical Response to l-Theanine as Augmentation of Antipsychotic Therapy in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder Patients
Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Ministry of Health Be'er-Sheva Mental Health Center, Be'er-Sheva, Israel. Clinical neuropharmacology
(Impact Factor: 2.01).
05/2011; 34(4):155-60. DOI: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e318220d8c6
L-Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) augmentation to antipsychotic therapy ameliorates positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients. This study examines the association between circulating levels of neurochemical indicators and the beneficial clinical effects of L-theanine augmentation.
Serum levels of neurochemical indicators such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, cholesterol, and insulin were monitored in 40 schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients during an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with L-theanine (400 mg/d). Multiple regression analysis was applied for searching association between improvement in symptom scores and changes in circulating levels of neurochemical indicators for an 8-week trial.
Regression models among L-theanine-treated patients indicate that circulating levels of BDNF and cortisol-to-DHEAS*100 molar ratio were significantly associated with the beneficial clinical effects of L-theanine augmentation. Variability of serum BDNF levels accounted for 26.2% of the total variance in reduction of dysphoric mood and 38.2% in anxiety scores. In addition, the changes in cortisol-to-DHEAS*100 molar ratio accounted for 30% to 34% of the variance in activation factor and dysphoric mood scores and for 15.9% in anxiety scores. Regression models among placebo-treated patients did not reach significant level.
These preliminary results indicate that circulating BDNF and cortisol-to-DHEAS*100 molar ratio may be involved in the beneficial clinical effects of L-theanine as augmentation of antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients.
Available from: James Neil
- "However, negative symptomatology, objective neurocognitive functioning, general functioning, quality of life and side effect prevalence did not differ in the groups. In terms of the mechanism of this supplement, circulating levels of neurochemical indicator brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cortisol-to-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS)*100 molar ratio appear to be associated with the observed clinical improvements in schizophrenia symptoms, although the exact reason for this relationship is unclear . Miodownik et al. postulate that alterations in serum BDNF level and cortisol-to-DHEAS*100 molar ratio may mediate the beneficial effects of L-Theanine augmentation. "
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that impacts significantly not only on the individual and family, but the disorder also has wider consequences for society in terms of significant costs to the economy. This highly prevalent condition affects approximately 1% of the worldwide population, yet there are few therapeutic options. The predominant treatment strategy for schizophrenia is anti-psychotic medication (with or without additional talking therapy) even though this approach lacks efficacy in managing the negative symptoms of the condition, is not effective in one-third of the patient group and the side effects of the medication can be severe and debilitating. In recent years, a number of pathophysiological processes have been identified in groups of people with schizophrenia including oxidative stress, one-carbon metabolism and immune-mediated responses. A number of studies have shown that these altered physiological mechanisms can be ameliorated by nutritional interventions in some individuals with schizophrenia. This review briefly describes the aforementioned processes and outlines research that has investigated the utility of nutritional approaches as an adjunct to anti-psychotic medication including antioxidant and vitamin B supplementation, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory nutrients and exclusion diets. Whilst none of these interventions provides a ‘one-size-fits-all’ therapeutic solution, we suggest that a personalised approach warrants research attention as there is growing agreement that schizophrenia is a spectrum disorder that develops from the interplay between environmental and genetic factors.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-91) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Nutrition Journal 09/2014; 13(1):91. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-91 · 2.60 Impact Factor
Available from: Alexander Niculescu
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ABSTRACT: We have used a translational convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach to identify and prioritize genes involved in schizophrenia, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study data with other genetic and gene expression studies in humans and animal models. Using this polyevidence scoring and pathway analyses, we identify top genes (DISC1, TCF4, MBP, MOBP, NCAM1, NRCAM, NDUFV2, RAB18, as well as ADCYAP1, BDNF, CNR1, COMT, DRD2, DTNBP1, GAD1, GRIA1, GRIN2B, HTR2A, NRG1, RELN, SNAP-25, TNIK), brain development, myelination, cell adhesion, glutamate receptor signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and cAMP-mediated signaling as key to pathophysiology and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Overall, the data are consistent with a model of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, resulting from the effects of neurodevelopmental environmental stress on a background of genetic vulnerability. In addition, we show how the top candidate genes identified by CFG can be used to generate a genetic risk prediction score (GRPS) to aid schizophrenia diagnostics, with predictive ability in independent cohorts. The GRPS also differentiates classic age of onset schizophrenia from early onset and late-onset disease. We also show, in three independent cohorts, two European American and one African American, increasing overlap, reproducibility and consistency of findings from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genes, then genes prioritized by CFG, and ultimately at the level of biological pathways and mechanisms. Finally, we compared our top candidate genes for schizophrenia from this analysis with top candidate genes for bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders from previous CFG analyses conducted by us, as well as findings from the fields of autism and Alzheimer. Overall, our work maps the genomic and biological landscape for schizophrenia, providing leads towards a better understanding of illness, diagnostics and therapeutics. It also reveals the significant genetic overlap with other major psychiatric disorder domains, suggesting the need for improved nosology.
Molecular Psychiatry 05/2012; 17(9):887-905. DOI:10.1038/mp.2012.37 · 14.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 08/2012; 103(2):245-252. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.08.008 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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