CD46 Expression is an Unfavorable Prognostic Factor in Breast Cancer Cases
Lower Silesian Centre of Oncology, University School of Medicine, ul. Hirszfelda Wrocław, Poland.Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.01). 05/2011; 19(6):540-6. DOI: 10.1097/PAI.0b013e31821a0be9
The membrane cofactor protein, CD46 represents a complement inhibitor, which protects autologous cells from complement-mediated cytotoxicity. On tumor cells, CD46 may exhibit the potential to protect them from immune responses of the host. The present study aimed at evaluation of prognostic significance of CD46 expression in breast cancers. The analyses were performed on 70 samples of breast cancer. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on paraffin sections of studied tumors using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD46. Results of the immunohistochemical reactions and of clinical observations were subjected to statistical analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that expression of CD46 and involvement of lymph nodes represent independent risk factors for disease-free survival and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with tumors negative for CD46 have an increased progression-free time and overall survival time as compared with patients with the CD46-positive tumors. The study demonstrates that breast cancers manifest CD46 expression and that it is linked to a less favorable prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: Oncolytic paramyxoviruses include some strains of Measles, Mumps, Newcastle disease, and Sendai viruses. All these viruses are well equipped for promoting highly specific and efficient malignant cell death, which can be direct and/or immuno-mediated. A number of proteins that serve as natural receptors for oncolytic paramyxoviruses are frequently overexpressed in malignant cells. Therefore, the preferential interaction of paramyxoviruses with malignant cells rather than with normal cells is promoted. Due to specific genetic defects of cancer cells in the interferon (IFN) and apoptotic pathways, viral replication has the potential to be promoted specifically in tumors. Viral mediation of syncytium formation (a polykaryonic structure) promotes intratumoral paramyxovirus replication and spreading, without exposure to host neutralizing antibodies. So, two related processes: efficient intratumoral infection spread as well as the consequent mass malignant cell death, both are enhanced. In general, the paramyxoviruses elicit strong anticancer innate and adaptive immune responses by triggering multiple danger signals. The paramyxoviruses are powerful inducers of IFN and other immuno-stimulating cytokines. These viruses efficiently promote anticancer activity of natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Moreover, a neuraminidase (sialidase), a component of the viral envelope of Newcastle Disease, Mumps, and Sendai viruses, can cleave sialic acids on the surface of malignant cells thereby unmasking cancer antigens and exposing them to the immune system. These multiple mechanisms contribute to therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic paramyxoviruses and are responsible for ncouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies.07/2015; 2:15011. DOI:10.1038/mto.2015.11
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