Management of gastrointestinal leaks after surgery for clinically severe obesity
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal leaks after bariatric surgery are the primary cause of serious morbidity and mortality nationwide. Enteric leaks can differ in severity, presentation, and management, depending on the type of bariatric surgery performed. Our objective was to describe the clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in patients who developed postoperative leaks at a university hospital bariatric referral center.
A retrospective observational study using descriptive statistics was conducted on data from 1499 bariatric operations performed at our institution from 1994 to 2010. The procedures included a variant of biliopancreatic diversion with long limb reconstruction (BPD-LL) in 820 patients (791 open and 29 laparoscopic), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in 301 patients (105 open and 196 laparoscopic), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in 208 patients (5 open and 203 laparoscopic).
Of these patients, 30 (2%) developed a postoperative leak at a median of 18 days (range 2-32) postoperatively. The primary procedure was laparoscopic SG in 12 patients (5.8%), laparoscopic RYGB in 5 patients (1.6%), and BPD-LL (12 open and 1 laparoscopic) in 13 patients (1.6%). In all patients who underwent laparoscopic SG, the leak site was along the staple line. The gastrojejunal anastomosis was leaking in 4 (80%) and 12 (92.3%) patients in the RYGB and BPD-LL group, respectively. The enteroenteral anastomosis was leaking in 1 patient each in the RYGB and BPD-LL groups (20% and 7.7%, respectively). Three patients (10%; 2 from the BPD-LL group and 1 from the RYGB group) presented with generalized peritonitis and underwent emergency re-exploration; nonoperative treatment was successful in the remaining 27 patients (90%). Stent placement for persistent gastrocutaneous fistula was used in 9 patients (30%; 8 from the SG cohort and 1 from the BPD-LL group). The overall mortality rate was 3.3%.
In our experience, most leaks resulting from antiobesity surgery were successfully managed using nonoperative methods. Rapid management of gastrointestinal leaks using computed tomography-guided drainage and/or intraluminal stent placement could be the treatment of choice in selected patients.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass is one of the most common operations for morbid obesity. One of the most feared complications is a leak, most commonly encountered in the gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJA), leading to significant morbidity and increased costs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of stenting leaks in the GJA. The setting was a university hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all gastric bypasses from January 2001 to August 2011, with special reference to the treatment of leaks in the GJA. RESULTS: A postoperative leak in the GJA occurred in 69 of 2214 patients. The risk was greater with open surgery and revisional surgery. The risk was also greater with age >50 years but not with a body mass index >50 kg/m(2). There was no mortality. In the later part of the series, stents were used, with a stent time of 2 weeks. The migration rate was 23%, and need for restenting was 20%. CONCLUSION: It is safe and advantageous to use stents in the treatment of leaks at the GJA. Patients can be on oral nutrition and oral medication, reducing the need for in-hospital care.Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 03/2012; 9(4). DOI:10.1016/j.soard.2012.03.002 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Sleeve gastrectomy is now a frequently performed bariatric procedure for severely obese patients and may have the lowest frequency of short-term or long-term complications. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in managing chronic proximal leaks with a proximal gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (PGEJ). Methods A retrospective review was performed of all patients having proximal chronic staple-line disruptions (CSLD) after undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Results Fifteen patients had proximal CSLD and were treated with PGEJ. There was 1 (6.6%) releak in this group, which resolved with nonoperative treatment. Other postoperative morbidities in this series included partial small bowel obstruction (n = 1) and subhepatic bile collection (n = 1), both of which resolved without operative intervention. Conclusion PGEJ appears to be a safe and effective procedure for chronic staple-line disruptions after sleeve gastrectomy.Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 01/2013; 10(3). DOI:10.1016/j.soard.2013.10.008 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a very frequent procedure in bariatric surgery due to its efficacy and simplicity compared to gastric bypass. Gastric staple line leak (1 to 7 % of cases) is a severe complication with a long nonstandardized treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine the success and tolerance of covered stents in its management. METHODS: From January 2009 to December 2011, nine patients with gastric staple line leaks after sleeve gastrectomy were treated with covered stents in our department (seven referred from other institutions). The leaks were diagnosed by CT scan and visualized during the endoscopy. Among the studied variables were operative technique, post-operative fistula diagnosis delay, stent treatment delay, and stent tolerance. In our institution, Hanarostent® (length 17 cm, diameter 18 mm; M.I. Tech, Seoul, Korea) was used and inserted under direct endoscopic control. RESULTS: Stent treatment was successful in seven cases (78 %). Two other cases had total gastrectomy (405 and 185 days after leak diagnosis). Early stent removal (due to migration or poor tolerance) was necessary in three cases. The average stent treatment duration was of 6.4 weeks, and the average healing time was 141 days. The five patients with an early stent treatment (≤3 weeks after leak diagnosis) had an average healing time of 99 days versus 224 for the four others. CONCLUSIONS: Covered self-expandable stent is an effective treatment of gastric leaks after sleeve gastrectomy. Early stent treatment seems to be associated with shorter healing time.Obesity Surgery 01/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.1007/s11695-012-0861-3 · 3.74 Impact Factor