Activation of a ΔFOSB dependent gene expression pattern in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with major depressive disorder.
ABSTRACT A ΔFOSB mediated transcriptional response in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is induced by chronic social stress in rodent and a 50% down-regulation of ΔFOSB has been also reported in the NAc of eight depressed subjects. To evaluate the role of ΔFOSB in the prefrontal cortex which is critically involved in negative cognitive bias associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) we have quantified the mRNA levels of ΔFOSB and of five of its major target genes in the Brodmann area 46 from 24 patients with MDD (11 with psychotic symptoms) and 12 controls.
Expression of the six genes has been quantified by a real-time quantitative PCR method: ΔFOSB, GRIA2 (encoding the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor), SPARCL1 (encoding hevin), SG3 (encoding the secretogranin III), PCP4 (encoding the Purkinje cell protein 4), ATP6V0C (encoding a subunit of the lysosomal ATPase).
Expression of ΔFOSB and GRIA2 was significantly up-regulated (≈ 1.60) in the BA 46 of MDD patients. Overexpression of SCG3 and PCP4 was restricted to psychotic subjects. The mRNA levels of GRIA2, SCG3 and PCP4 were strongly correlated in the depressed group.
All the patients were treated by antidepressants and the number of subjects in each subgroup was rather small.
Induction of a ΔFOSB mediated transcriptional pattern in the prefrontal cortex is opposite to the down-regulation observed in the NAc. The major consequence might be a shift in the excitability of the glutamatergic synapses which depends on GluR2 (high in the NAc and low in the BA 46).
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ABSTRACT: Decreased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuronal activity is associated with social defeat-induced depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased mPFC activity and its prodepressant role remain unknown. We show here that induction of the transcription factor ΔFosB in mPFC, specifically in the prelimbic (PrL) area, mediates susceptibility to stress. ΔFosB induction in PrL occurred selectively in susceptible mice after chronic social defeat stress, and overexpression of ΔFosB in this region, but not in the nearby infralimbic (IL) area, enhanced stress susceptibility. ΔFosB produced these effects partly through induction of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-B receptor: CCKB blockade in mPFC induces a resilient phenotype, whereas CCK administration into mPFC mimics the anxiogenic- and depressant-like effects of social stress. We previously found that optogenetic stimulation of mPFC neurons in susceptible mice reverses several behavioral abnormalities seen after chronic social defeat stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that optogenetic stimulation of cortical projections would rescue the pathological effects of CCK in mPFC. After CCK infusion in mPFC, we optogenetically stimulated mPFC projections to basolateral amygdala or nucleus accumbens, two subcortical structures involved in mood regulation. Stimulation of corticoamygdala projections blocked the anxiogenic effect of CCK, although no effect was observed on other symptoms of social defeat. Conversely, stimulation of corticoaccumbens projections reversed CCK-induced social avoidance and sucrose preference deficits but not anxiogenic-like effects. Together, these results indicate that social stress-induced behavioral deficits are mediated partly by molecular adaptations in mPFC involving ΔFosB and CCK through cortical projections to distinct subcortical targets.Journal of Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(11):3878-87. · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a hormone-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, exerts widespread actions in many tissues such as tight epithelia, the cardiovascular system, adipose tissues and macrophages. In the mammalian brain, MR is present in the limbic areas where it is highly expressed in neurons of the hippocampus and mostly absent in other regions while the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression is ubiquitous. MR binds both aldosterone and glucocorticoids, the latter having a ten-fold higher affinity for MR than for the closely related GR. However, owing to the minimal aldosterone transfer across the blood brain barrier and the absence of neuronal 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 as an intracellular gate-keeper, neuronal MR appears to be fully occupied even at low physiological glucocorticoid levels while GR activation only occurs at high glucocorticoid concentrations, i.e. at the peak of the circadian rhythm or under stress. This defined a one hormone/two receptors system that works in balance, modulating a large spectrum of actions in the central nervous system. MR and GR are involved in the stress responses, the regulation of neuron excitability, long term potentiation, neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. MR thus constitutes a key factor in the arising of higher cognitive functions such as memorization, learning and mood. This review presents an overview of various roles of MR in the central nervous system which are somewhat less studied than that of GR, in the light of recent data obtained using cellular models, animal models and clinical investigations.Steroids 06/2014; · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purkinje-cell protein 4 (PCP4) is a small calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that has been discovered to be selectively expressed by cerebellar Purkinje cells in the adult rodent brain. In addition, expression of PCP4 mRNA has been detected in the hippocampus and in the cortex. In order to determine the expression of PCP4 protein in the brain, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis using adult mice. We could demonstrate that PCP4 is expressed in neocortical structures, especially in the deep layers, as well as in other cortical structures and parts of the hippocampal formation. Moreover, PCP4 protein is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb and caudate putamen. PCP4 positive cells were also detected in specific areas of the amygdala, thalamus (especially dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus) and hypothalamus. By performing double-labeling experiments together with NeuN (a neuronal marker), we could demonstrate that PCP4 expressing cells in the brain are of neuronal origin.Acta Histochemica 06/2014; · 1.76 Impact Factor