Bacterial Meningitis in the United States, 1998–2007
ABSTRACT The rate of bacterial meningitis declined by 55% in the United States in the early 1990s, when the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine for infants was introduced. More recent prevention measures such as the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and universal screening of pregnant women for group B streptococcus (GBS) have further changed the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis.
We analyzed data on cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents in eight surveillance areas of the Emerging Infections Programs Network, consisting of approximately 17.4 million persons, during 1998-2007. We defined bacterial meningitis as the presence of H. influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, GBS, Listeria monocytogenes, or Neisseria meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid or other normally sterile site in association with a clinical diagnosis of meningitis.
We identified 3188 patients with bacterial meningitis; of 3155 patients for whom outcome data were available, 466 (14.8%) died. The incidence of meningitis changed by -31% (95% confidence interval [CI], -33 to -29) during the surveillance period, from 2.00 cases per 100,000 population (95% CI, 1.85 to 2.15) in 1998-1999 to 1.38 cases per 100,000 population (95% CI 1.27 to 1.50) in 2006-2007. The median age of patients increased from 30.3 years in 1998-1999 to 41.9 years in 2006-2007 (P<0.001 by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The case fatality rate did not change significantly: it was 15.7% in 1998-1999 and 14.3% in 2006-2007 (P=0.50). Of the 1670 cases reported during 2003-2007, S. pneumoniae was the predominant infective species (58.0%), followed by GBS (18.1%), N. meningitidis (13.9%), H. influenzae (6.7%), and L. monocytogenes (3.4%). An estimated 4100 cases and 500 deaths from bacterial meningitis occurred annually in the United States during 2003-2007.
The rates of bacterial meningitis have decreased since 1998, but the disease still often results in death. With the success of pneumococcal and Hib conjugate vaccines in reducing the risk of meningitis among young children, the burden of bacterial meningitis is now borne more by older adults. (Funded by the Emerging Infections Programs, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
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ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical presentation, underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, treatment and outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis patients.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2014; 4(8):669-72. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B100
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ABSTRACT: We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.Revista Argentina de microbiología 46(1):14-23. · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) adjuvant therapy on the neurotrophin-4/5(NT-4/5) expression of hippocampus and neocortex in young rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Three-week-old rat models with S. pneumoniae meningitis were established; there were 32 rats, receiving antibiotics and antibiotics with DEX treatments, respectively. The NT-4/5 expression of hippocampus and neocortex were detected through immunohistochemical techniques. The NT-4/5 expression in the antibiotics with DEX treatment group was significantly higher than that of the simple antibiotics treatment (P<0.05). The immunohistochemical staining-positive particles were undetected in the negative control. S. pneumonia meningitis treated with DEX adjuvant therapy can regulate NT-4/5 expression to promote nerve growth, thus, reducing the damage to brain parenchyma.