Ser608Leu polymorphisms in the nitric oxide synthase-2 gene may influence urinary bladder cancer pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyse whether the exonic Ser608Leu (rs2297518) polymorphism in nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) influences urinarybladder cancer risk and pathogenesis.
Genotyping of 359 bladder cancer patients from a population-based cohort and 164 population controls was carried out by allelic discrimination and sequencing. Genotypes were combined with information on tumour stage, grade, stage progression and cancer-specific death, from a 5-year clinical follow-up.
For the Ser608Leu polymorphism, TT homozygotes had three-fold higher odds for bladder cancer (p = 0.081), but once ill, a lower risk for stage progression (p = 0.031) and a better prognosis.
The data indicate that the Tallele of the NOS2 Ser608Leu polymorphism is an initial risk factor for developing urinary bladder cancer. Among bladder cancer patients, however, individuals who are TT homozygous have a lower risk of developing muscle-invasive disease and a higher cancer-specific survival. Depending on the cellular context, nitric oxide can induce proliferation as well as apoptosis. The results from this and previous studies suggest that NOS2 polymorphisms may influence both the risk of contracting bladder cancer and the aggressiveness of the disease.
Article: The L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.New England Journal of Medicine 01/1994; 329(27):2002-12. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (NOS), electron transfer proceeds across domains in a linear sequence from NADPH to flavins to heme, with calmodulin (CaM) triggering the interdomain electron transfer to the heme (Abu-Soud, H. M., and Stuehr, D. J. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 10769-10772). Here, we utilized a neuronal NOS devoid of its bound heme and tetrahydrobiopterin (apo-NOS) to examine whether interdomain electron transfer is responsible for CaM's activation of NO synthesis, substrate-independent NADPH oxidation, and cytochrome c and ferricyanide reduction. Of the four activities, two (cytochrome c and ferricyanide reduction) were similarly stimulated by CaM in apo-NOS when compared with native NOS, indicating that activation occurs by a mechanism not involving flavin-to-heme electron transfer. Further analysis showed that CaM increased the rate of electron transfer from NADPH into the flavin centers by a factor of 20, revealing a direct activation of the NOS reductase domain by CaM. In contrast, CaM's activation of NO synthesis and substrate-independent NADPH oxidation appeared to involve flavin-to-heme electron transfer because these reactions were not activated in apo-NOS and were blocked in native NOS by agents that prevent heme iron reduction. Thus, CaM activates neuronal NOS at two points in the electron transfer sequence: electron transfer into the flavins and interdomain electron transfer between the flavins and heme. Activation at each point is associated with an up-regulation of domain-specific catalytic functions. The dual regulation by CaM is unique and represents a new means by which electron transfer can be controlled in a metalloflavoprotein.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1995; 269(51):32047-50. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The neuronal and endothelial nitric-oxide synthases (nNOS and eNOS) differ from inducible NOS in their dependence on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Both nNOS and eNOS are activated by the reversible binding of calmodulin (CaM) in the presence of Ca(2+), whereas inducible NOS binds CaM irreversibly. One major divergence in the close sequence similarity between the NOS isoforms is a 40-50-amino acid insert in the middle of the FMN-binding domains of nNOS and eNOS. It has previously been proposed that this insert forms an autoinhibitory domain designed to destabilize CaM binding and increase its Ca(2+) dependence. To examine the importance of the insert we constructed two deletion mutants designed to remove the bulk of it from nNOS. Both mutants (Delta40 and Delta42) retained maximal NO synthesis activity at lower concentrations of free Ca(2+) than the wild type enzyme. They were also found to retain 30% of their activity in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM, indicating that the insert plays an important role in disabling the enzyme when the physiological Ca(2+) concentration is low. Reduction of nNOS heme by NADPH under rigorous anaerobic conditions was found to occur in the wild type enzyme only in the presence of Ca(2+)/CaM. However, reduction of heme in the Delta40 mutant occurred spontaneously on addition of NADPH in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM. This suggests that the insert regulates activity by inhibiting electron transfer from FMN to heme in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM and by destabilizing CaM binding at low Ca(2+) concentrations, consistent with its role as an autoinhibitory domain.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(43):30589-95. · 4.65 Impact Factor