An Epigenetic Marker Panel for Detection of Lung Cancer Using Cell-Free Serum DNA

Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.19). 05/2011; 17(13):4494-503. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3436
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the feasibility of detecting aberrant DNA methylation of some novel and known genes in the serum of lung cancer patients.
To determine the analytic sensitivity, we examined the tumor and the matched serum DNA for aberrant methylation of 15 gene promoters from 10 patients with primary lung tumors by using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. We then tested this 15-gene set to identify the more useful DNA methylation changes in the serum of a limited number of lung cancer patients and controls. In an independent set, we tested the six most promising genes (APC, CDH1, MGMT, DCC, RASSF1A, and AIM1) for further elucidation of the diagnostic application of this panel of markers.
Promoter hypermethylation of at least one of the genes studied was detected in all 10 lung primary tumors. In majority of cases, aberrant methylation in serum DNA was accompanied by methylation in the matched tumor samples. In the independent set, using a single gene that had 100% specificity (DCC), 35.5% (95% CI: 25-47) of the 76 lung cancer patients were correctly identified. For patients without methylated DCC, addition of a logistic regression score that was based on the five remaining genes improved sensitivity from 35.5% to 75% (95% CI: 64-84) but decreased the specificity from 100% to 73% (95% CI: 54-88).
This approach needs to be evaluated in a larger test set to determine the role of this gene set in early detection and surveillance of lung cancer.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in the world. The landmark National lung screening trial (NLST) showed a 20 % relative reduction in mortality in high-risk individuals with screening low-dose computed tomography. However, the poor specificity and low prevalence of lung cancer in the NLST provide major limitations to its widespread use. Furthermore, a lung nodule on CT scan requires a nuanced and individualized approach towards management. In this regard, advances in high through-put technology (molecular diagnostics, multi-gene chips, proteomics, and bronchoscopic techniques) have led to discovery of lung cancer biomarkers that have shown potential to complement the current screening standards. Early detection of lung cancer can be achieved by analysis of biomarkers from tissue samples within the respiratory tract such as sputum, saliva, nasal/bronchial airway epithelial cells and exhaled breath condensate or through peripheral biofluids such as blood, serum and urine. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy has been employed in research setting to identify pre-invasive lesions not identified on CT scan. Although these modalities are not yet commercially available in clinic setting, they will be available in the near future and clinicians who care for patients with lung cancer should be aware. In this review, we present up-to-date state of biomarker development, discuss their clinical relevance and predict their future role in lung cancer management.
    Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 08/2014; 192(5). DOI:10.1007/s00408-014-9636-z · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Considerable efforts have been undertaken to produce an effective screening method to reduce lung cancer mortality. Imaging tools such as low-dose computed tomography has shown an increase in the detection of early disease and a reduction in the rate of death. This screening modality has, however, several limitations, such as overdiagnosis and a high rate of false positives. Therefore, new screening methods, such as the use of circulating protein biomarkers, have emerged as an option that could complement imaging studies. In this review, current imaging techniques applied to lung cancer screening protocols are presented, as well as up-to-date status of circulating protein biomarker panels that may improve lung cancer diagnosis. Additionally, diverse statistical and artificial intelligence tools applied to the design and optimization of these panels are discussed along with the presentation of two commercially available blood tests recently developed to help detect lung cancer early.
    Future Oncology 06/2014; 10(8):1501-13. DOI:10.2217/fon.14.21 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous study showed that PLCD1 significantly decreases cell proliferation and affects cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate its functional and molecular mechanisms,and whether or not can become a new target for gene therapies. We found reduced PLCD1 protein expression in breast tumor tissues compared with paired surgical margin tissues. PLCD1 promoter CpG methylation was detected in 55 of 96 (57%) primary breast tumors, but not in surgical-margin tissues and normal breast tissues. Ectopic expression of PLCD1 inhibited breast tumor cell proliferation in vivo by inducing apoptosis and suppressed tumor cell migration by regulating cytoskeletal reorganization proteins including RhoA and phospho-cofilin. Furthermore, we found that PLCD1 induced p53 accumulation, increased p27 and p21 protein levels, and cleaved PARP. Finally, We constructed an adenoviral vector expressing PLCD1 (AdH5-PLCD1), which exhibited strong cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Our findings provide insights into the development of PLCD1 gene therapies for breast cancer and perhaps, other human cancers.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014