Integrating physiological regulation with stem cell and tissue homeostasis.
ABSTRACT Stem cells are uniquely able to self-renew, to undergo multilineage differentiation, and to persist throughout life in a number of tissues. Stem cells are regulated by a combination of shared and tissue-specific mechanisms and are distinguished from restricted progenitors by differences in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that other aspects of cellular physiology, including mitosis, signal transduction, and metabolic regulation, also differ between stem cells and their progeny. These differences may allow stem cells to be regulated independently of differentiated cells in response to circadian rhythms, changes in metabolism, diet, exercise, mating, aging, infection, and disease. This allows stem cells to sustain homeostasis or to remodel relevant tissues in response to physiological change. Stem cells are therefore not only regulated by short-range signals that maintain homeostasis within their tissue of origin, but also by long-range signals that integrate stem cell function with systemic physiology.
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ABSTRACT: Adult tissue stem cells have the ability to adjust to environmental changes and affect also the proliferation of neighboring cells, with important consequences on tissue maintenance and regeneration. Stem cell renewal and proliferation is strongly regulated during aging of the organism. Caloric restriction is the most powerful anti-aging strategy conserved throughout evolution in the animal kingdom. Recent studies relate the properties of caloric restriction to its ability in reprogramming stem-like cell states and in prolonging the capacity of stem cells to self-renew, proliferate, differentiate, and replace cells in several adult tissues. However this general paradigm presents with exceptions. The scope of this review is to highlight how caloric restriction impacts on diverse stem cell compartments and, by doing so, might differentially delay aging in the tissues of lower and higher organisms.Experimental gerontology 11/2013; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2013.10.014 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolism is influenced by age, food intake, and conditions such as diabetes and obesity. How do physiological or pathological metabolic changes influence stem cells, which are crucial for tissue homeostasis? This Commentary reviews recent evidence that stem cells have different metabolic demands than differentiated cells, and that the molecular mechanisms that control stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are functionally connected to the metabolic state of the cell and the surrounding stem cell niche. Furthermore, we present how energy-sensing signaling molecules and metabolism regulators are implicated in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Finally, we discuss the emerging literature on the metabolism of induced pluripotent stem cells and how manipulating metabolic pathways might aid cellular reprogramming. Determining how energy metabolism regulates stem cell fate should shed light on the decline in tissue regeneration that occurs during aging and facilitate the development of therapies for degenerative or metabolic diseases.Journal of Cell Science 12/2012; 125(Pt 23):5597-608. DOI:10.1242/jcs.114827 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Twenty years have past since the existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) within the walls of the adult lateral ventricles was discovered. During this period of time, great strides have been made in every facet of our understanding of this adult periventricular NSC population. In this review, some of the fields' major advancements regarding the nature and function of adult periventricular NSCs are examined. We bring attention to issues related to NSC identity, potential, and the role of Notch signaling in regulating quiescence and activation that warrant further investigation. Progress in the understanding of human adult NSCs will aid in the development of tools required to advance therapies not only for brain repair after injury or disease but may also lead to novel therapeutics for brain tumors.Developmental Neurobiology 07/2012; 72(7):972-89. DOI:10.1002/dneu.22029 · 4.19 Impact Factor