Distribution and changes of serotonin and dopamine levels in the central nervous system and ovary of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, during ovarian maturation cycle.
ABSTRACT We investigated changes in serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) levels and in their distribution patterns in the central nervous system (CNS) and ovary during the ovarian maturation cycle in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The concentrations of these two neurotransmitters were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The 5-HT concentration exhibited a gradual increase in the brain and thoracic ganglia during early ovarian stages I, II, and III, reaching a maximum at the mature ovarian stage IV, whereas DA showed its highest concentration at ovarian stage II in the brain and thoracic ganglia and then declined to its lowest concentration at ovarian stage IV. In the ovaries, 5-HT was lowest at ovarian stage I and gradually increased to a peak at ovarian stage IV. Conversely, the concentration of DA was highest at ovarian stages I and II and lowest at ovarian stage IV. In the brain, 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) from stage IV and DA-ir from stage II were distributed extensively in neurons of clusters 6, 11, and 17, in fibers, and in the anterior and posterior medial protocerebral, olfactory, antenna II, and tegumentary neuropils. In the circumesophageal, subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia, both 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in neuropils and surrounding neurons and fibers. 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were more intense in the thoracic ganglia than in other parts of the CNS. In the ovary, 5-HT-ir exhibited high intensity in late oocytes, whereas DA-ir was more intense in early oocytes. Thus, opposing changes occur in the levels of these two neurotransmitters and in their specific localizations in the CNS and ovary during ovarian maturation, indicating their important involvement in female reproduction.
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ABSTRACT: The central nervous system (CNS) is often intimately involved in reproduction control and is therefore a target organ for transcriptomic investigations to identify reproduction-associated genes. In this study, 454 transcriptome sequencing was performed on pooled brain and ventral nerve cord of the female mud crab (Scylla olivacea) following serotonin injection (5 µg/g BW). A total of 197,468 sequence reads was obtained with an average length of 828 bp. Approximately 38.7% of 2,183 isotigs matched with significant similarity (E value < 1e-4) to sequences within the Genbank non-redundant (nr) database, with most significant matches being to crustacean and insect sequences. Approximately 32 putative neuropeptide genes were identified from nonmatching blast sequences. In addition, we identified full-length transcripts for crustacean reproductive-related genes, namely farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase (FAMeT), estrogen sulfotransferase (ESULT) and prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS). Following serotonin injection, which would normally initiate reproductive processes, we found up-regulation of FAMeT, ESULT and PGFS expression in the female CNS and ovary. Our data here provides an invaluable new resource for understanding the molecular role of the CNS on reproduction in S. olivacea.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115867. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mud crab, Scylla olivacea, is one of the most economically valuable marine species in Southeast Asian countries. However, commercial cultivation is disadvantaged by reduced reproductive capacity in captivity. Therefore, an understanding of the general and detailed anatomy of central nervous system (CNS) is required before investigating the distribution and functions of neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and other biomolecules, involved with reproduction. We found that the anatomical structure of the brain is similar to other crabs. However, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) is unlike other caridian and dendrobrachiate decapods, as the subesophageal (SEG), thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused, due to the reduction of abdominal segments and the tail. Neurons in clusters within the CNS varied in sizes, and we found that there were five distinct size classes (i.e., very small globuli, small, medium, large, and giant). Clusters in the brain and SEG contained mainly very small globuli and small-sized neurons, whereas, the VNC contained small-, medium-, large-, and giant-sized neurons. We postulate that the different sized neurons are involved in different functions. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Microscopy Research and Technique 12/2013; · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that lvVIH can be classified as a member of type-II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cells culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: (1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible co-regulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression; and (2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.Biology of Reproduction 01/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor