Combining capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and gemcitabine (XELOXGEM) for colorectal carcinoma patients pretreated with irinotecan: a multicenter phase I/II trial.
ABSTRACT Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) is an effective second-line regimen for advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients pretreated with irinotecan. Previous studies have shown supra-additive anti-tumor activity of gemcitabine (GEM) when administered with oxaliplatin. We investigated the dose, toxicity, and efficacy of a second-line XELOXGEM regimen in CRC patients pretreated with irinotecan.
Patients with metastatic or recurrent CRC who failed after a first-line irinotecan-containing regimen received escalating doses of gemcitabine (600, 800, 1,000 mg/m(2) d1, d8) followed by capecitabine (1,000 mg/m(2) b.i.d d1-14) and oxaliplatin (100 mg/m(2) d1) on a 21-day cycle.
A total of 38 patients were treated. At 800 mg/m(2), two of six patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (diarrhea and thrombocytopenia). Therefore, the clinically recommended dose was defined as 600 mg/m(2) gemcitabine (d1, d8) followed by 1,000 mg/m(2) capecitabine (b.i.d dl-14) and 100 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin (d1). The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (32%), thrombocytopenia (13%), anemia (11%), and peripheral neuropathy (11%). Ten (26.3%) and 23 (60.5%) patients experienced partial response and stable disease, respectively. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.4 months (95% CI 3.8-6.9 months) and 17.7 months (95% CI 8.4-26.9 months), respectively.
The XELOXGEM triplet combination is an active and safe second-line regimen for advanced CRC patients pretreated with irinotecan.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) is noninferior to fluorouracil. folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-4) as first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). The initial design of this trial was a randomized, two-arm, noninferiority, phase III comparison of XELOX versus FOLFOX-4. After patient accrual had begun, the trial design was amended in 2003 after bevacizumab phase III data became available. The resulting 2 x 2 factorial design randomly assigned patients to XELOX versus FOLFOX-4, and then to also receive either bevacizumab or placebo. We report here the results of the analysis of the XELOX versus FOLFOX-4 arms. The analysis of bevacizumab versus placebo with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is reported separately. The prespecified primary end point for the noninferiority analysis was progression-free survival. The intent-to-treat population comprised 634 patients from the original two-arm portion of the study, plus an additional 1,400 patients after the start of the amended 2 x 2 design, for a total of 2,034 patients. The median PFS was 8.0 months in the pooled XELOX-containing arms versus 8.5 months in the FOLFOX-4-containing arms (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 97.5% CI, 0.93 to 1.16). The median overall survival was 19.8 months with XELOX versus 19.6 months with FOLFOX-4 (HR, 0.99; 97.5% CI, 0.88 to 1.12). FOLFOX-4 was associated with more grade 3/4 neutropenia/granulocytopenia and febrile neutropenia than XELOX, and XELOX with more grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 hand-foot syndrome than FOLFOX-4. XELOX is noninferior to FOLFOX-4 as a first-line treatment for MCRC, and may be considered as a routine treatment option for appropriate patients.Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2008; 26(12):2006-12. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.9898 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although combination treatment with bevacizumab (humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor) and chemotherapy improves survival of patients with various metastatic carcinomas, an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events has been observed in some trials. We characterized this risk by performing post hoc analyses of randomized controlled trials that evaluated combination treatment with bevacizumab and chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone. Low-dose aspirin was permitted in these trials, and its safety was also analyzed. Data were pooled from five randomized controlled trials that included a total of 1745 patients with metastatic colorectal, breast, or non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The risk of an arterial or venous thromboembolic event was assessed by simple incidence rates, rates per 100 person-years, and/or hazard ratios (HRs). The association between patient characteristics and risk of an arterial thromboembolic event was investigated primarily by Cox proportional hazards regression. The relationship between low-dose aspirin and bleeding was explored by incidence rates and rates per 100 person-years. Combined treatment with bevacizumab and chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, was associated with increased risk for an arterial thromboembolic event (HR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 3.75; P = .031) but not for a venous thromboembolic event (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.20; P = .44). The absolute rate of developing an arterial thromboembolism was 5.5 events per 100 person-years for those receiving combination therapy and 3.1 events per 100 person-years for those receiving chemotherapy alone (ratio = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.94 to 3.33; P = .076). Development of an arterial thromboembolic event was associated with a prior arterial thromboembolic event (P<.001) or age of 65 years or older (P = .01). Baseline or on-study aspirin use was associated with modest increases in grade 3 and 4 bleeding events in both treatment groups, from 3.6% to 4.7% for bevacizumab-treated patients and from 1.7% to 2.2% for control subjects. Combination treatment with bevacizumab and chemotherapy, compared with chemotherapy alone, was associated with an increased risk of arterial thromboembolism but not venous thromboembolism.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 08/2007; 99(16):1232-9. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djm086 · 15.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin, gemcitabine and capecitabine are all active agents against upper gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary cancers. Patients with upper gastrointestinal malignancies treated with 0-2 prior chemotherapy regimens received oxaliplatin (85-100 mg/m(2)) as a 2-h i.v. infusion with gemcitabine (800-1000 mg/m(2)) at a constant rate i.v. infusion (CI) of 10 mg/m(2)/min on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Capecitabine (600-800 mg/m(2)) was administered orally twice a day on days 1-7 and 15-21. A three per cohort dose escalation schema was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the dose-limiting toxic effects (DLTs) of this combination regimen. Thirty patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal malignancies were enrolled. The MTD was defined as oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) i.v. over 2 h plus gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) i.v. at a CI of 10 mg/m(2)/min on days 1 and 15 with capecitabine 800 mg/m(2) p.o. b.i.d. days 1-7 and 15-21 of a 29-day cycle. DLTs include grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 dyspnea. One complete and two partial responses were observed. This biweekly schedule of oxaliplatin, gemcitabine and capecitabine is tolerable and warrants further investigation in biliary and pancreatic malignancies.Annals of Oncology 07/2008; 19(10):1742-8. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdn375 · 6.58 Impact Factor