Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol

Sigrid A Rajasekaran, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, United States.
World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology 02/2011; 2(1):1-14. DOI: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i1.1
Source: PubMed


Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin's therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin's therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers.

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    • "Under in vivo conditions, the position of the hydroxyl group having a crucial role in the improvement of antioxidant activity of curcuminoids (Somparn and others 2007). As evidenced from tetrahydrocurcumin, a reduction of the C-C of the C7 linker apparently does not have any effect on antioxidant activity (Rajasekaran 2011). The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin is partly mediated through inhibition of IkB kinase activity leading to suppression of NF-kB activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin, the natural yellow-colored active principle, also called turmeric yellow, extracted from the perennial herb Curcuma longa L., has potent biological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-ischemic, antitumor, and anticancer actions. The molecular mechanism of the hepatoprotective action of curcumin is due to its antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor (NF)-B that regulates different proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Overall, scientific reports demonstrate that curcumin has high therapeutic ability for treating hepatic disorders. Here is a systematic discussion of the hepatoprotective activity of curcumin and its possible mechanisms of actions.
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 01/2014; 13(1). DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12047 · 4.18 Impact Factor
    • "The chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic effects of curcumin have been demonstrated in numerous carcinogenesis models and preclinical trials. Most recently, curcumin has been shown to exhibit anticancer effects in several human cancers (Anand et al., 2008) (Goel et al., 2008) in particular the gastrointestinal cancers including oesophageal, mouth, intestinal, stomach and colon (Rajasekaran, 2011). Curcumin inhibits growth and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells (Cai et al., 2009; Sintara et al., 2012) and is also effective in preventing cancers resistant to multiple drug treatment (Tang et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The work was aimed to validate the gastroretentive potential of microsponges via optimization of targeted floating curcumin microsponges for improved site specific absorption for gastric cancer Modified quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to formulate microsponges using 3(2) full factorial design. The effect of different levels of ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol concentration, selected as independent variables was determined on the % entrapment efficiency, %buoyancy and %cumulative drug release. Modified rosette rise apparatus was used for in vitro release and the release data best fitted Higuchi's model and mechanism of drug release was diffusion (n). The optimized formulation (MS5) demonstrated favourable %entrapment efficiency (90.7 ±1.7), %buoyancy (82.0± 2.0) and %cumulative drug release (85.2±1.07) with maximum desirability factor of 0.816. SEM revealed spherical and porous microsponges. DSC confirmed molecular dispersion of the drug in the microsponges polymeric matrix. DRIFT revealed no chemical interaction between the drug and polymer used. The in vitro permeation of curcumin through gastric mucin gel layer affirmed the capability of microsponges to deliver drug across mucin r and reach the target site to treat gastric cancer. Anticancer oral dose of microsponges was calculated as cytotoxicity assay in human cancer cell line KB. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of MS5 in rabbits revealed 10 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to native curcumin, demonstrated the superiority of microsponges over native curcumin as gastro retentive drug delivery system. This study presents a new approach based on floating ability of microsponges for treatment of gastric cancer.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 10/2013; 460(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.10.045 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Curcumin has been extensively studied and found to have diverse pharmacological activities [2] . Various animal and human studies have shown curcumin is extremely safe even at very high doses [3] . United States Food and Drug Administration has also declared curcumin as " generally regarded as safe " . "
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    ABSTRACT: To prepare curcumin-piperine (Cu-Pi) nanoparticles by various methods and to study the effect of various manufacturing parameters on Cu-Pi nanoparticles and to identify a suitable method for the preparation of Cu-Pi nanoparticles to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer. Cu-Pi nanoparticles were prepared by thin film hydration method, solid dispersion method, emulsion polymerization method and Fessi method. Optimization was carried out to study the effect of various manufacturing parameter on the Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Out of four methods, Fessi method produced a minimum average particle size of 85.43 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.183 and zeta potential of 29.7 mV. Change of organic solvent (acetone or ethanol) did not have any significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. However, increase in sonication time, stirring speed, viscosity, use of 1:10:10 ratio of drug/polymer/surfactant, and use of anionic surfactant or combination of anionic surfactant with cationic polymer or combination of non-ionic surfactant with cationic polymer had a significant effect on Cu-Pi nanoparticles. Cu-Pi nanoparticles coated with PEG containing copolymer produced by Fessi method had a minimum average particle size, excellent polydispersity index and optimal zeta potential which fall within the acceptable limits of the study. This dual nanoparticulate drug delivery system appears to be promising to overcome oral bioavailability and cancer cell targeting limitations in the treatment of cancer.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 11/2012; 2(11):841-8. DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60241-X
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