Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases.

Sigrid A Rajasekaran, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, United States.
World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology 02/2011; 2(1):1-14. DOI: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i1.1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin's therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin's therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers.

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    ABSTRACT: Several curcuminoids have been identified from rhizome of the common spice Curcuma longa (Zingaberaceae) and related plant species. Curcuminoids are known to display several pharmacological properties summed up in numerous papers and reviews. In addition to curcuminoids, more than 250 mono-, sesqui- di-, and triterpenoids have been identified from curcuma species. These lipophilic compounds have better absorption than curcuminoids and also exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Little attention has been paid to these lipophilic compounds, which may be as physiologically active, if not more, as curcuminoids. This review focuses on Curcuma terpenoids and their physiological properties.
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    ABSTRACT: The process of carcinogenesis is tightly regulated by antioxidant enzymes and matrix degrading enzymes, namely, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins like collagen, proteoglycan, laminin, elastin and fibronectin is considered to be the prerequisite for tumor invasion and metastasis. MMPs can degrade essentially all of the ECM components and, most MMPs also substantially contribute to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Hence, MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth both at the primary site and in distant metastases; thus the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. The implications of MMPs in cancers are no longer mysterious; however, the mechanism of action is yet to be explained. Herein, our major interest is to clarify how MMPs are tied up with gastrointestinal cancers. Gastrointestinal cancer is a variety of cancer types, including the cancers of gastrointestinal tract and organs, i.e., esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The activity of MMPs is regulated by its endogenous inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) which bind MMPs with a 1:1 stoichiometry. In addition, RECK (reversion including cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) is a membrane bound glycoprotein that inhibits MMP-2, -9 and -14. Moreover, α2-macroglobulin mediates the uptake of several MMPs thereby inhibit their activity. Cancerous conditions increase intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) through mitochondrial dysfunction leading to altered protease/anti-protease balance. ROS, an index of oxidative stress is also involved in tumorigenesis by activation of different MAP kinase pathways including MMP induction. Oxidative stress is involved in cancer by changing the activity and expression of regulatory proteins especially MMPs. Epidemiological studies have shown that high intake of fruits that rich in antioxidants is associated with a lower cancer incidence. Evidence indicates that some antioxidants inhibit the growth of malignant cells by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting the activity of MMPs. This review is discussed in six subchapters, as follows.
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    ABSTRACT: Background We previously developed a surface-controlled water-dispersible form of curcumin and named it Theracurmin® (Theracurmin; Theravalues, Tokyo, Japan). The area under the blood concentration–time curve of Theracurmin in humans was 27-fold higher than that of curcumin powder. We determined the clinical effects of orally administered Theracurmin in patients with knee osteoarthritis during 8 weeks of treatment. Methods Fifty patients with knee osteoarthritis of Kellgren–Lawrence grade II or III and who were aged more than 40 years were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical study. Placebo or Theracurmin containing 180 mg/day of curcumin was administered orally every day for 8 weeks. To monitor adverse events, blood biochemistry analyses were performed before and after 8 weeks of each intervention. The patients’ knee symptoms were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, the knee pain visual analog scale (VAS), the knee scoring system of the Japanese Orthopedic Association, and the need for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Results At 8 weeks after treatment initiation, knee pain VAS scores were significantly lower in the Theracurmin group than in the placebo group, except in the patients with initial VAS scores of 0.15 or less. Theracurmin lowered the celecoxib dependence significantly more than placebo. No major side effects were observed with Theracurmin treatment. Conclusion Theracurmin shows modest potential for the treatment of human knee osteoarthritis.
    Journal of Orthopaedic Science 10/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1007/s00776-014-0633-0 · 1.01 Impact Factor

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