Adiponectin suppresses gluconeogenic gene expression in mouse hepatocytes independent of LKB1-AMPK signaling.
ABSTRACT The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin signals from the fat storage depot to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. Inversely correlated with body fat levels, adiponectin reduction in obese individuals may play a causal role in the symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin lowers serum glucose through suppression of hepatic glucose production, an effect attributed to activation of AMPK. Here, we investigated the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of adiponectin by studying mice with inducible hepatic deletion of LKB1, an upstream regulator of AMPK. We found that loss of LKB1 in the liver partially impaired the ability of adiponectin to lower serum glucose, though other actions of the hormone were preserved, including reduction of gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose production as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Furthermore, in primary mouse hepatocytes, the absence of LKB1, AMPK, or the transcriptional coactivator CRTC2 did not prevent adiponectin from inhibiting glucose output or reducing gluconeogenic gene expression. These results reveal that whereas some of the hormone's actions in vivo may be LKB1 dependent, substantial LKB1-, AMPK-, and CRTC2-independent signaling pathways also mediate effects of adiponectin.
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ABSTRACT: Considerable data support the idea that forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) drives the liver transcriptional program during fasting and is then inhibited by thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (Akt) after feeding. Here we show that mice with hepatic deletion of Akt1 and Akt2 were glucose intolerant, insulin resistant and defective in their transcriptional response to feeding in the liver. These defects were normalized with concomitant liver-specific deletion of Foxo1. Notably, in the absence of both Akt and Foxo1, mice adapted appropriately to both the fasted and fed state, and insulin suppressed hepatic glucose production normally. A gene expression analysis revealed that deletion of Akt in liver led to the constitutive activation of Foxo1-dependent gene expression, but again, concomitant ablation of Foxo1 restored postprandial regulation, preventing the inhibition of the metabolic response to nutrient intake caused by deletion of Akt. These results are inconsistent with the canonical model of hepatic metabolism in which Akt is an obligate intermediate for proper insulin signaling. Rather, they show that a major role of hepatic Akt is to restrain the activity of Foxo1 and that in the absence of Foxo1, Akt is largely dispensable for insulin- and nutrient-mediated hepatic metabolic regulation in vivo.Nature medicine 01/2012; 18(3):388-95. · 27.14 Impact Factor
Article: Loss of coiled-coil domain containing 80 negatively modulates glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Coiled-coil domain containing 80 (Ccdc80) is a secreted protein highly enriched in mouse and human white adipose tissue (WAT) that plays an important role during adipocyte differentiation in vitro. To investigate the physiological function of Ccdc80 in energy and glucose homeostasis, we generated mice in which the gene encoding Ccdc80 was disrupted. Mice lacking Ccdc80 showed increased sensitivity to diet-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance while displaying reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. Gene expression analysis by microarray revealed that only 10 transcripts were simultaneously altered in pancreas, skeletal muscle, and WAT from Ccdc80(-/-) mice, including some components of the circadian clock. Expression of the core clock member Arntl/Bmal1 was reduced whereas that of the oscillating transcription factors Dbp and Tef was increased in all tissues examined. Furthermore, knockdown of Ccdc80 in 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase of Dbp mRNA levels during adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that Ccdc80 might be involved in the regulation of this gene in a cell-autonomous manner. Importantly, transcriptional alterations in Ccdc80(-/-) mice were associated with changes in feeding behavior, increased caloric intake, decreased energy expenditure, and obesity. Taken together, our results suggest that Ccdc80 is a novel modulator of glucose and energy homeostasis during diet-induced obesity.Endocrinology 06/2012; 153(9):4290-303. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MAP kinase phosphatase 3 (MKP-3) is known to attenuate the ERK signaling pathway. It has been recently demonstrated that MKP-3 is also a player in promoting hepatic glucose output in obese state by interacting and activating FOXO1. Reduction of hepatic MKP-3 expression is sufficient to reduce blood glucose levels in both diet-induced and genetically obese mice. In current study, the mechanism of MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction and the effects on transcription of gluconeogenic gene and glucose output was investigated in Fao hepatoma cells by using mutated MKP-3 and FOXO1 adenoviral constructs. The results indicate that MKP-3 phosphatase activity is not required for MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction but is essential for FOXO1 nuclear translocation and MKP-3 promoted gluconeogenesis. Compared to GFP control (1±0.38), MKP-3 increased G6Pase gene expression by 242% (3.42±0.62) while inactive MKP-3 does not change G6Pase expression (0.98±0.17). The residues 200-260 of MKP-3 and the residues 360-456 of FOXO1 are essential for mediating MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation deficient but not Akt phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant lost interaction with MKP-3. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that Akt phosphorylation resistant FOXO1 3A mutant is sufficient to rescue the hypoglycemia caused by MKP-3 knock down in the liver of lean mice (from 141±6.78 to 209±14.64 mg/dL). 1) Critical residues mediating MKP-3/FOXO1 interaction have been identified; 2) ERK phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant is as potent as Akt phosphorylation deficient FOXO1 mutant in activating transcription of gluconeogenic genes; 3) Constitutively active FOXO1 can rescue the hypoglycemic effect caused by reduced hepatic MKP-3 expression in vivo.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41168. · 4.09 Impact Factor