Ebf1 or PAX5 haploinsufficiency synergizes with STAT5 activation to initiate acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, The Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Journal of Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 12.52). 06/2011; 208(6):1135-49. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20101947
Source: PubMed


As STAT5 is critical for the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of progenitor B cells, this transcription factor may play a role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here, we show increased expression of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), which is correlated with poor prognosis, in ALL patient cells. Mutations in EBF1 and PAX5, genes critical for B cell development have also been identified in human ALL. To determine whether mutations in Ebf1 or Pax5 synergize with STAT5 activation to induce ALL, we crossed mice expressing a constitutively active form of STAT5 (Stat5b-CA) with mice heterozygous for Ebf1 or Pax5. Haploinsufficiency of either Pax5 or Ebf1 synergized with Stat5b-CA to rapidly induce ALL in 100% of the mice. The leukemic cells displayed reduced expression of both Pax5 and Ebf1, but this had little effect on most EBF1 or PAX5 target genes. Only a subset of target genes was deregulated; this subset included a large percentage of potential tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Further, most of these genes appear to be jointly regulated by both EBF1 and PAX5. Our findings suggest a model whereby small perturbations in a self-reinforcing network of transcription factors critical for B cell development, specifically PAX5 and EBF1, cooperate with STAT5 activation to initiate ALL.

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Available from: Laura B Ramsey, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "Somatic mutations and deletions of PAX5 have been found in about 30% of pediatric B ALL samples (79). To date, only haploinsufficiency of PAX5 was shown to be important for induction of leukemia in an activated STAT5 B ALL mouse model (80). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia remains the most common diagnosis in pediatric oncology and, despite dramatic progress in upfront therapy, is also the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Much of the initial improvement in outcomes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was due to identification of cytotoxic agents that are active against leukemia followed by the recognition that combination of these cytotoxic agents and prolonged therapy are essential for cure. Recent data demonstrating lack of progress in patients for whom standard chemotherapy fails suggests that the ability to improve outcome for these children will not be dramatically impacted through more intensive or newer cytotoxic agents. Thus, much of the recent research focus has been in the area of improving our understanding of the genetics and the biology of leukemia. Although in vitro studies remain critical, given the complexity of a living system and the increasing recognition of the contribution of leukemia extrinsic factors such as the bone marrow microenvironment, in vivo models have provided important insights. The murine systems that are used can be broadly categorized into syngeneic models in which a murine leukemia can be studied in immunologically intact hosts and xenograft models where human leukemias are studied in highly immunocompromised murine hosts. Both of these systems have limitations such that neither can be used exclusively to study all aspects of leukemia biology and therapeutics for humans. This review will describe the various ALL model systems that have been developed as well as discuss the advantages and disadvantages inherent to these systems that make each particularly suitable for specific types of studies.
    Frontiers in Oncology 05/2014; 4:95. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00095
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    • "The detected aberrations included previously reported loss/gains that are related to ALL, such as 9p13.2 loss involving PAX5 in patient no. 2 [12]; 9p21.3 loss involving CDKN2A in 4 patients (nos. 3, 4, 6 and 7) and MLLT3 in patient no. 3 and 4. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous form of hematological cancer consisting of various subtypes. We are interested to study the genetic aberration in precursor B-cell ALL with specific t(12;21) translocation in childhood ALL patients. A high resolution 244K array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) was used to study eleven ETV6/RUNX1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Result 155 chromosomal aberrations (119 losses, 36 gains) were reported in the array findings, corresponding to 76.8% deletions and 23.2% amplifications. The ETV6 gene deletion occurred in 4 of the patients, corresponding to 45% of the sample. The most common alterations above 1 Mb were deletion 6q (13%), 12p (12%) and 9p (8%), and duplication 4q (6%) and Xq (4%). Other genes important in ALL were also identified in this study including RUNX1, CDKN2A, FHIT, and PAX5. The array-CGH technique was able to detect microdeletion as small as 400 bp. Conclusion The results demonstrate the usefulness of high resolution array-CGH as a complementary tool in the investigation of ALL.
    Molecular Cytogenetics 11/2012; 5(1):41. DOI:10.1186/1755-8166-5-41 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The B cell lineage of the hematopoietic system is responsible for the generation of high-affinity antibodies, which provide humoral immunity for protection against foreign pathogens. B cell commitment and development depend on many transcription factors including Pax5. Here, we review the different functions of Pax5 in regulating various aspects of B lymphopoiesis. At B cell commitment, Pax5 restricts the developmental potential of lymphoid progenitors to the B cell pathway by repressing B-lineage-inappropriate genes, while it simultaneously promotes B cell development by activating B-lymphoid-specific genes. Pax5 thereby controls gene transcription by recruiting chromatin-remodeling, histone-modifying, and basal transcription factor complexes to its target genes. Moreover, Pax5 contributes to the diversity of the antibody repertoire by controlling V(H)-DJ(H) recombination by inducing contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in pro-B cells, which is likely mediated by PAIR elements in the 5' region of the V(H) gene cluster. Importantly, all mature B cell types depend on Pax5 for their differentiation and function. Pax5 thus controls the identity of B lymphocytes throughout B cell development. Consequently, conditional loss of Pax5 allows mature B cells from peripheral lymphoid organs to develop into functional T cells in the thymus via dedifferentiation to uncommitted progenitors in the bone marrow. Pax5 has also been implicated in human B cell malignancies because it can function as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor or oncogenic translocation fusion protein in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Advances in Immunology 01/2011; 111:179-206. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-385991-4.00005-2 · 5.96 Impact Factor
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