Glycosylation affects ligand binding and function of the activating natural killer cell receptor 2B4 (CD244) protein.
ABSTRACT 2B4 (CD244) is an important activating receptor for the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell responses. Here we show that 2B4 is heavily and differentially glycosylated in primary human NK cells and NK cell lines. The differential glycosylation could be attributed to sialic acid residues on N- and O-linked carbohydrates. Using a recombinant fusion protein of the extracellular domain of 2B4, we demonstrate that N-linked glycosylation of 2B4 is essential for the binding to its ligand CD48. In contrast, sialylation of 2B4 has a negative impact on ligand binding, as the interaction between 2B4 and CD48 is increased after the removal of sialic acids. This was confirmed in a functional assay system, where the desialylation of NK cells or the inhibition of O-linked glycosylation resulted in increased 2B4-mediated lysis of CD48-expressing tumor target cells. These data demonstrate that glycosylation has an important impact on 2B4-mediated NK cell function and suggest that regulated changes in glycosylation during NK cell development and activation might be involved in the regulation of NK cell responses.
SourceAvailable from: Ricardo Gutiérrez-Gallego[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates fulfil many common as well as extremely important functions in nature. They show a variety of molecular displays - e.g., free mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides, glycolipids, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, etc. - with particular roles and localizations in living organisms. Structure-specific peculiarities are so many and diverse that it becomes virtually impossible to cover them all from an analytical perspective. Hence this manuscript, focused on mammalian glycosylation, rather than a complete list of analytical descriptors or recognized functions for carbohydrate structures, comprehensively reviews three central issues in current glycoscience, namely (i) structural analysis of glycoprotein glycans, covering both classical and novel approaches for teasing out the structural puzzle as well as potential pitfalls of these processes; (ii) an overview of functions attributed to carbohydrates, covering from monosaccharide to complex, well-defined epitopes and full glycans, including post-glycosylational modifications, and (iii) recent technical advances allowing structural identification of glycoprotein glycans with simultaneous assignation of biological functions.The Analyst 04/2014; DOI:10.1039/c3an02245e · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viruses must continually adapt against dynamic innate and adaptive responses of the host immune system to establish chronic infection. Only a small minority (~20%) of those exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) spontaneously clear infection, leaving approximately 200 million people worldwide chronically infected with HCV. A number of recent research studies suggest that establishment and maintenance of chronic HCV infection involve natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction. This relationship is illustrated in vitro by disruption of typical NK cell responses including both cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Expression of a number of activating NK cell receptors in vivo is also affected in chronic HCV infection. Thus, direct in vivo and in vitro evidence of compromised NK function in chronic HCV infection in conjunction with significant epidemiological associations between the outcome of HCV infection and certain combinations of NK cell regulatory receptor and class I human histocompatibility linked antigen (HLA) genotypes indicate that NK cells are important in the immune response against HCV infection. In this review, we highlight evidence suggesting that selective impairment of NK cell activity is related to establishment of chronic HCV infection.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:903764. DOI:10.1155/2014/903764 · 2.71 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Specific sugar residues and their linkages form the basis of molecular recognition for interactions of glycoproteins with other biomolecules. Seemingly small changes, like the addition of a single monosaccharide in the covalently attached glycan component of glycoproteins, can greatly affect these interactions. For instance, the sialic acid capping of glycans affects protein-ligand binding involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. CD44 is a single-pass transmembrane glycoprotein whose binding with its carbohydrate ligand hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix component, mediates processes such as leukocyte homing, cell adhesion, and tumor metastasis. This binding is highly regulated by glycosylation of the N-terminal extracellular hyaluronan-binding domain (HABD); specifically, sialic acid capped N-glycans of HABD inhibit ligand binding. However, the molecular mechanism behind this sialic acid mediated regulation has remained unknown. Two of the five N-glycosyation sites of HABD have been previously identified as having the greatest inhibitory effect on HA binding, but only if the glycans contain terminal sialic acid residues. These two sites, Asn25 and Asn120, were chosen for in silico glycosylation in this study. Here, from extensive standard molecular dynamics simulations and biased simulations, we propose a molecular mechanism for this behavior based on spontaneously-formed charge-paired hydrogen bonding interactions between the negatively-charged sialic acid residues and positively-charged Arg sidechains known to be critically important for binding to HA, which itself is negatively charged. Such intramolecular hydrogen bonds would preclude associations critical to hyaluronan binding. This observation suggests how CD44 and related glycoprotein binding is regulated by sialylation as cellular environments fluctuate. © Proteins 2014;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 08/2014; 82(11). DOI:10.1002/prot.24668 · 3.34 Impact Factor