Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy Pathogenic Desmosome Mutations in Index-Patients Predict Outcome of Family Screening: Dutch Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy Genotype-Phenotype Follow-Up Study

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 06/2011; 123(23):2690-700. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.988287
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease with incomplete penetrance and variable expression. Causative mutations in genes encoding 5 desmosomal proteins are found in ≈50% of ARVD/C index patients. Previous genotype-phenotype relation studies involved mainly overt ARVD/C index patients, so follow-up data on relatives are scarce.
One hundred forty-nine ARVD/C index patients (111 male patients; age, 49±13 years) according to 2010 Task Force criteria and 302 relatives from 93 families (282 asymptomatic; 135 male patients; age, 44±13 years) were clinically and genetically characterized. DNA analysis comprised sequencing of plakophilin-2 (PKP2), desmocollin-2, desmoglein-2, desmoplakin, and plakoglobin and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to identify large deletions in PKP2. Pathogenic mutations were found in 87 index patients (58%), mainly truncating PKP2 mutations, including 3 cases with multiple mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification revealed 3 PKP2 exon deletions. ARVD/C was diagnosed in 31% of initially asymptomatic mutation-carrying relatives and 5% of initially asymptomatic relatives of index patients without mutation. Prolonged terminal activation duration was observed more than negative T waves in V(1) to V(3), especially in mutation-carrying relatives <20 years of age. In 45% of screened families, ≥1 affected relatives were identified (90% with mutations).
Pathogenic desmosomal gene mutations, mainly truncating PKP2 mutations, underlie ARVD/C in the majority (58%) of Dutch index patients and even 90% of familial cases. Additional multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis contributed to discovering pathogenic mutations underlying ARVD/C. Discovering pathogenic mutations in index patients enables those relatives who have a 6-fold increased risk of ARVD/C diagnosis to be identified. Prolonged terminal activation duration seems to be a first sign of ARVD/C in young asymptomatic relatives.


Available from: Dennis Dooijes, May 30, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exercise is associated with age‐related penetrance and arrhythmic risk in carriers of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C)‐associated desmosomal mutations; however, its role in patients without desmosomal mutations (gene‐elusive) is uncertain. This study investigates whether exercise is (1) associated with onset of gene‐elusive ARVD/C and (2) has a differential impact in desmosomal and gene‐elusive patients. Methods and Results Eighty‐two ARVD/C patients (39 desmosomal, all probands) were interviewed about regular physical activity from age 10. Participation in endurance athletics, duration (hours/year), and intensity (MET‐Hours/year) of exercise prior to clinical presentation were compared between patients with desmosomal and gene‐elusive ARVD/C. All gene‐elusive patients were endurance athletes. Gene‐elusive patients were more likely to be endurance athletes (P<0.001) and had done significantly more intense (MET‐Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation (P<0.001), particularly among cases presenting < age 25 (P=0.027). Family history was less prevalent among gene‐elusive patients (9% versus 40% desmosomal, P<0.001), suggesting a greater environmental influence. Gene‐elusive patients without family history did considerably more intense exercise than other ARVD/C patients (P=0.004). Gene‐elusive patients who had done the most intense (top quartile MET‐Hrs/year) exercise prior to presentation had a younger age of presentation (P=0.025), greater likelihood of meeting ARVD/C structural Task Force Criteria (100% versus 43%, P=0.02), and shorter survival free from a ventricular arrhythmia in follow‐up (P=0.002). Conclusions Gene‐elusive, non‐familial ARVD/C is associated with very high intensity exercise suggesting exercise has a disproportionate role in the pathogenesis of these cases. As exercise negatively modifies cardiac structure and promotes arrhythmias, exercise restriction is warranted.
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a desmosomal disease. Desmosomes and gap junctions are important structural components of cardiac intercalated discs. The proteins plakophilin-2 (PKP-2) and connexin43 (Cx43) are components of desmosomes and gap junctions, respectively. This study was conducted to determine whether Cx43 expression is affected by the mutation of the PKP-2 gene in patients with ARVC. A novel mutation was detected in a typical patient with ARVC. The mutated gene was transfected into rat mesenchymal stem cells expressing Cx43 through a pReversied-M-29 plasmid. Cx43 expression was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Cx43 expression was significantly decreased in the mutant PKP-2 group compared with that in the wild-type PKP-2 group. In conclusion, PKP-2 affected Cx43 expression at the gene transcription level in the patient with ARVC.
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    ABSTRACT: The p.Gln554X mutation in desmocollin-2 (DSC2) is prevalent in ≈10% of the Hutterite population. While the homozygous mutation causes severe biventricular arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, the phenotypic features and prognosis of heterozygotes remain incompletely understood. Eleven homozygotes (mean age 32±8 years, 45% female), 28 heterozygotes (mean age 40±15 years, 50% female), and 22 mutation-negatives (mean age 43±17 years, 41% female) were examined. Diagnostic testing was performed as per the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy modified Task Force Criteria. Inverted T waves in the right precordial leads on ECG were seen in all homozygotes but not in their counterparts (P<0.001). Homozygotes had higher median daily premature ventricular complex burden than did heterozygotes or mutation-negatives (1407 [IQR 1080 to 2936] versus 2 [IQR 0 to 6] versus 6 [IQR 0 to 214], P=0.0002). Ventricular tachycardia was observed in 60% of homozygotes but in none of the remaining individuals (P<0.001). On cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, homozygotes had significantly larger indexed end-diastolic volumes (right ventricular: 122±24 versus 83±17 versus 83±12 mL/m(2), P<0.0001; left ventricular: 93±18 versus 76±13 versus 80±11 mL/m(2), P=0.0124) and lower ejection fraction values compared with heterozygotes and mutation-negatives (right ventricular ejection fraction: 41±9% versus 59±9% versus 61±6%, P<0.0001; left ventricular ejection fraction: 53±8% versus 65±5% versus 64±5%, P<0.0001). Most affected individuals lacked right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. Thus, few met cardiac magnetic resonance imaging task force criteria. The ECG reliably identifies homozygous p.Gln554X carriers and may be useful as an initial step in the screening of high-risk Hutterites. The cardiac phenotype of heterozygotes appears benign, but further prospective follow-up of their arrhythmic risk is needed. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.