Hepatic Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass Surgery: Assessment With Open-System H-1-MR Spectroscopy

Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 06/2011; 196(6):W736-42. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.10.5215
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess, with histopathologic control, the use of open-system 1-T (1)H MR spectroscopy for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery.
Patients underwent (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the assessment of steatosis before and 3 months after surgery. Liver biopsy was performed during surgery. Hepatic steatosis was expressed as the ratio of fat peak area to cumulative water and fat peak areas. Histopathologic percentage of steatosis was graded as none (0-5%), mild (5-33%), moderate (33-66%), or severe (> 66%). The accuracy of (1)H-MRS and Spearman correlation coefficient were calculated. Differences between groups were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed rank and Mann-Whitney tests.
The study included 38 patients (median age, 45.5 years; median body mass index, 47.7). Before surgery, median steatosis measured with (1)H-MRS was 5.8%. The accuracy of (1)H-MRS was 89% (32/36), and the (1)H-MRS findings correlated with the histopathologic assessment of steatosis (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). With (1)H-MRS, no steatosis was discriminated from mild steatosis (p = 0.011), mild was discriminated from moderate steatosis (p < 0.001), and moderate was discriminated from severe steatosis (p = 0.021). Three months after surgery, steatosis had decreased to 3.1% (p < 0.001). The prevalence of hepatic steatosis measured with (1)H-MRS decreased from 53% to 32%.
In the care of morbidly obese patients undergoing assessment of hepatic steatosis and changes in steatosis after gastric bypass surgery, (1)H-MRS with an open 1-T MRI system is feasible. Measurements of hepatic fat with (1)H-MRS are accurate and correlate with clinical and histopathologic results.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US) for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in severely obese adolescents, with proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy as the reference standard, and to provide insight on the influence of prevalence on predictive values by calculating positive and negative posttest probabilities. This prospective study was institutional review board approved. All participants, and/or their legal representatives, gave written informed consent. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the overall presence of steatosis and for the presence of substantial (moderate to severe) steatosis. Positive and negative posttest probabilities were calculated and plotted against prevalence. A total of 104 children (47 male, 57 female) were prospectively included. Mean age was 14.5 years (range, 8.3-18.9 years) and mean age-adjusted standard deviation body mass index (BMI) score (BMI z score) was 3.3 (range, 2.6-4.1). The overall prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 46.2% (48 of 104). Sensitivity of US was 85.4% (41 of 48), specificity was 55.4% (31 of 56), PPV was 62.1% (41 of 66), and NPV was 81.6% (31 of 38). The prevalence of substantial steatosis was 15.4% (16 of 104), with US sensitivity of 75.0% (12 of 16) and specificity of 87.5% (77 of 88). PPV was 52.2% (12 of 23) and NPV was 95.1% (77 of 81). Plotting of posttest probabilities against prevalence for both disease degrees demonstrated how disease prevalence influences US accuracy. Positive US results in severely obese adolescents cannot be used to accurately predict the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis, and additional imaging is required. Negative US results exclude the presence of substantial steatosis with acceptable accuracy. Steatosis prevalence differs among specific populations, strongly influencing posttest probabilities.
    Radiology 11/2011; 262(1):327-34. DOI:10.1148/radiol.11111094 · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the utility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, with the determination of shear wave velocity (SWV), to differentiate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with morbid obesity before bariatric surgery. Thirty-two patients with morbid obesity were evaluated with ARFI and conventional ultrasound before bariatric surgery. The ARFI and ultrasound results were compared with liver biopsy findings, which is the reference standard. The patients were classed according to their histological findings into three groups: group A, simple steatosis; group B, inflammation; and group C, fibrosis. The median SWV was 1.57 ± 0.79 m/s. Hepatic alterations were observed in the histopathological findings for all the patients in the study (100 %), with the results of the laboratory tests proving normal. Differences in SWV were also observed between groups A, B and C: 1.34 ± 0.90 m/s, 1.55 ± 0.79 m/s and 1.86 ± 0.75 m/s (P < 0.001), respectively. The Az for differentiating NAFLD from NASH or fibrosis was 0.899 (optimal cut-off value 1.3 m/s; sensitivity 85 %; specificity 83.3 %). The ARFI technique is a useful diagnostic tool for differentiating NAFLD from NASH in asymptomatic patients with morbid obesity. KEY POINTS : • Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging provides ultrasonic shear wave velocity measurements. • SWV measurements were higher in patients with inflammation or fibrosis than NAFLD. • ARFI differentiates NAFLD from NASH in patients with morbid obesity. • Results suggest that ARFI can detect NASH in asymptomatic morbidly obese patients.
    European Radiology 06/2012; 22(11):2525-32. DOI:10.1007/s00330-012-2505-3 · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Hepatology 06/2012; 57(2):241-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.05.002 · 10.40 Impact Factor