Inhaled anticholinergic medications (IACs) are widely used treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The systemic anticholinergic effects of IAC therapy have not been extensively studied. This study sought to determine the risk of acute urinary retention (AUR) in seniors with COPD using IACs.
A nested case-control study of individuals with COPD aged 66 years or older was conducted from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2009, using population-based linked databases from Ontario, Canada. A hospitalization, same-day surgery, or emergency department visit for AUR identified cases, which were matched with up to 5 controls. Exposure to IACs was determined using a comprehensive drug benefits database. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between IAC use and AUR.
Of 565,073 individuals with COPD, 9432 men and 1806 women developed AUR. Men who just initiated a regimen of IACs were at increased risk for AUR compared with nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.68). In men with evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the risk was increased further (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.46-2.24). Men using both short- and long-acting IACs had a significantly higher risk of AUR compared with monotherapy users (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25-2.71) or nonusers (2.69; 1.93-3.76).
Use of short- and long-acting IACs is associated with an increased risk of AUR in men with COPD. Men receiving concurrent treatment with both short- and long-acting IACs and those with evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia are at highest risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older persons have an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment because the aging lung is likely to have experienced exposures to environmental toxins as well as reductions in physiological capacity.
Systematic review of risk factors and measures of pulmonary function that are most often considered when defining respiratory impairment in aging populations.
Across the adult life span, there are frequent exposures to environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, air pollution, and occupational dusts. Concurrently, there are reductions in physiological capacity that may adversely affect ventilatory control, respiratory muscle strength, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange. Recent work has provided a strong rationale for defining respiratory impairment as an age-adjusted reduction in spirometric measures of pulmonary function that are independently associated with adverse health outcomes. Specifically, establishing respiratory impairment based on spirometric Z-scores has been shown to be strongly associated with respiratory symptoms, frailty, and mortality. Alternatively, respiratory impairment may be defined by the peak expiratory flow, as measured by a peak flow meter. The peak expiratory flow, when expressed as a Z-score, has been shown to be strongly associated with disability and mortality. However, because it has a reduced diagnostic accuracy, peak expiratory flow should only define respiratory impairment when spirometry is not readily available or an older person cannot adequately perform spirometry.
Aging is associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment, which is best defined by spirometric Z-scores. Alternatively, in selected cases, respiratory impairment may be defined by peak expiratory flow, also expressed as a Z-score.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 12/2011; 67(3):264-75. DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr198 · 5.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defining the nature of the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other chronic conditions is of primary importance to improve the health status of COPD patients through the optimal care of comorbidities. We aimed at providing a reasoned guide to understand, recognize and treat comorbidity of COPD with the perspective of shifting from comorbidity to multimorbidity.
Select comorbidities, such as atherosclerotic disease, depression, chronic kidney disease, cognitive impairment, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, lung cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, heart failure, sarcopenia, aortic aneurysm, arrhythmias and pulmonary embolism are highly prevalent among older COPD patients. Several concerns may affect the management of older COPD patients with comorbidity (e.g. the use of β-blockers in patients with COPD and cardiovascular diseases or concerns about the cardiovascular safety of inhaled COPD drugs).
Evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may be the link between COPD and comorbidities, but this issue is still debated. Whatever the mechanism underlying comorbidities in COPD may be, it has an important clinical, prognostic and therapeutic impact. Nevertheless, clinical practice guidelines do not take into account comorbidities in their recommendations. Additionally, clinical trials investigating COPD treatment in the context of multimorbidity and considering geriatric outcomes are also distinctly lacking.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 12/2011; 17 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S21-8. DOI:10.1097/01.mcp.0000410744.75216.d0 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent and increasing health problems in the elderly on a worldwide scale. The management of COPD in older patients presents practical diagnostic and treatment issues, which are reviewed with reference to the stable stage of the disease.
In the diagnostic approach of COPD in the elderly the use of spirometry is recommended, but both patient conditions (such as inability to correctly perform it due to fatigue, lack of coordination, and cognitive impairment) and metrics characteristics should be taken into account for the test performance. It has been demonstrated in population studies that the use of the fixed ratio determines a substantial overdiagnosis of COPD in the oldest patients. Other parameters have been suggested [such as the evaluation of Lower Limit of Normality (LLN) for the FEV1/FVC ratio], which may be useful to guide the diagnosis. Several nonpharmacologic - such as smoking cessation, vaccination, physical activity, and pulmonary rehabilitation, nutrition, and eventually invasive ventilation - and pharmacologic interventions have been shown to improve outcomes and have been reviewed. Effective management of COPD in older adults should always consider the ability of patients to properly use inhalers and the involvement of caregivers or family members as a useful support to care, especially when treating cognitively impaired patients. Especially in the older population, timely identification and treatment of comorbidities are also crucial, but evidence in this area is still lacking and clinical practice guidelines do not take comorbidities into account in their recommendations.
The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease has recommended criteria for diagnosis and management of COPD in the general population. On the contrary, available evidence suggests practical limitations in diagnostic approach and intervention strategies in older patients with stable COPD that need to be further studied for a translation into clinical practice guidelines.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 12/2011; 17 Suppl 1:S43-8. DOI:10.1097/01.mcp.0000410747.20958.39 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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