Inhaled Anticholinergic Drug Therapy and the Risk of Acute Urinary Retention in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease A Population-Based Study
ABSTRACT Inhaled anticholinergic medications (IACs) are widely used treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The systemic anticholinergic effects of IAC therapy have not been extensively studied. This study sought to determine the risk of acute urinary retention (AUR) in seniors with COPD using IACs.
A nested case-control study of individuals with COPD aged 66 years or older was conducted from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2009, using population-based linked databases from Ontario, Canada. A hospitalization, same-day surgery, or emergency department visit for AUR identified cases, which were matched with up to 5 controls. Exposure to IACs was determined using a comprehensive drug benefits database. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between IAC use and AUR.
Of 565,073 individuals with COPD, 9432 men and 1806 women developed AUR. Men who just initiated a regimen of IACs were at increased risk for AUR compared with nonusers (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.68). In men with evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the risk was increased further (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.46-2.24). Men using both short- and long-acting IACs had a significantly higher risk of AUR compared with monotherapy users (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.25-2.71) or nonusers (2.69; 1.93-3.76).
Use of short- and long-acting IACs is associated with an increased risk of AUR in men with COPD. Men receiving concurrent treatment with both short- and long-acting IACs and those with evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia are at highest risk.
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ABSTRACT: Older persons have an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment because the aging lung is likely to have experienced exposures to environmental toxins as well as reductions in physiological capacity. Systematic review of risk factors and measures of pulmonary function that are most often considered when defining respiratory impairment in aging populations. Across the adult life span, there are frequent exposures to environmental toxins, including tobacco smoke, respiratory infections, air pollution, and occupational dusts. Concurrently, there are reductions in physiological capacity that may adversely affect ventilatory control, respiratory muscle strength, respiratory mechanics, and gas exchange. Recent work has provided a strong rationale for defining respiratory impairment as an age-adjusted reduction in spirometric measures of pulmonary function that are independently associated with adverse health outcomes. Specifically, establishing respiratory impairment based on spirometric Z-scores has been shown to be strongly associated with respiratory symptoms, frailty, and mortality. Alternatively, respiratory impairment may be defined by the peak expiratory flow, as measured by a peak flow meter. The peak expiratory flow, when expressed as a Z-score, has been shown to be strongly associated with disability and mortality. However, because it has a reduced diagnostic accuracy, peak expiratory flow should only define respiratory impairment when spirometry is not readily available or an older person cannot adequately perform spirometry. Aging is associated with an increased risk of developing respiratory impairment, which is best defined by spirometric Z-scores. Alternatively, in selected cases, respiratory impairment may be defined by peak expiratory flow, also expressed as a Z-score.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 12/2011; 67(3):264-75. DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr198 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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