Purification and characterization of tagless recombinant human elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) expressed in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT The eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) modulates the rate of protein synthesis by impeding the elongation phase of translation by inactivating the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) via phosphorylation. eEF-2K is known to be activated by calcium and calmodulin, whereas the mTOR and MAPK pathways are suggested to negatively regulate kinase activity. Despite its pivotal role in translation regulation and potential role in tumor survival, the structure, function, and regulation of eEF-2K have not been described in detail. This deficiency may result from the difficulty of obtaining the recombinant kinase in a form suitable for biochemical analysis. Here we report the purification and characterization of recombinant human eEF-2K expressed in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta-gami 2(DE3). Successive chromatography steps utilizing Ni-NTA affinity, anion-exchange, and gel filtration columns accomplished purification. Cleavage of the thioredoxin-His(6)-tag from the N-terminus of the expressed kinase with TEV protease yielded 9 mg of recombinant (G-D-I)-eEF-2K per liter of culture. Light scattering shows that eEF-2K is a monomer of ∼85 kDa. In vitro kinetic analysis confirmed that recombinant human eEF-2K is able to phosphorylate wheat germ eEF-2 with kinetic parameters comparable to the mammalian enzyme.
Article: Activity and regulation by growth factors of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (elongation factor 2-kinase) in human breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III (CaM kinase III, elongation factor-2 kinase) is a unique member of the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase family. Activation of CaM kinase III leads to the selective phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) and transient inhibition of protein synthesis. Recent cloning and sequencing of CaM kinase III revealed that this enzyme represents a new superfamily of protein kinases. The activity of CaM kinase III is selectively activated in proliferating cells; inhibition of the kinase blocked cells in G0/G1-S and decreased viability. To determine the significance of CaM kinase III in breast cancer, we measured the activity of the kinase in human breast cancer cell lines as well as in fresh surgical specimens. The specific activity of CaM kinase III in human breast cancer cell lines was equal to or greater than that seen in a variety of cell lines with similar rates of proliferation. The specific activity of CaM kinase III was markedly increased in human breast tumour specimens compared with that of normal adjacent breast tissue. The activity of this enzyme was regulated by breast cancer mitogens. In serum-deprived MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated cell proliferation and activated CaM kinase III to activities observed in the presence of 10% serum. Inhibition of enzyme activity blocked cell proliferation induced by growth factors. In MCF-7 cells separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. CaM kinase III was increased in S-phase over that of other phases of the cell cycle. In summary, the activity of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase III is controlled by breast cancer mitogens and appears to be constitutively activated in human breast cancer. These results suggest that CaM kinase III may contribute an important link between growth factor/receptor interactions, protein synthesis and the induction of cellular proliferation in human breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer 02/1999; 79(1):59-64. · 5.04 Impact Factor
Article: Modifications of surface properties in some enteropathogenic serogroups of Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies have been carried out on protein and fatty acid patterns present in the outer layers of E. coli strains which are considered pathogenic in relation to their serogroup. The patterns were related to surface properties of hydrophobicity of the same cells and to their resistance to phagocytosis. The results obtained demonstrate the presence in the pathogenic serogroups of a proteic band of high molecular weight as well as differences in the percentages of fatty acids with respect to the non-pathogenic serogroups. Furthermore, these serogroups are more resistant to phagocytosis; this resistance seems to be correlated to a greater surface hydrophilia of the pathogenic serogroups, leading to different relations of the lipidic and protein fraction of the outer layers.Microbiologica 05/1985; 8(2):181-90.
Article: Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates rabbit reticulocyte elongation factor-2 kinase and induces calcium-independent activity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylated purified calcium/calmodulin-dependent eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) kinase, isolated from rabbit reticulocyte lysates. It maximally incorporated about 1 mol of phosphate/mol of eEF-2 kinase. The Km of eEF-2 kinase for PKA was calculated to be 7 microM. Phosphorylation of eEF-2 kinase by PKA induced calcium-independent activity which amounted to 40-50% of the total activity measured in the presence of calcium. Furthermore, the level of calcium-independent activity induced by phosphorylation by PKA was similar to that induced by the calcium-stimulated autophosphorylation of eEF-2 kinase. Phosphopeptide mapping of eEF-2 kinase labelled by autophosphorylation and by PKA revealed a number of common phosphopeptides. This suggests that PKA may phosphorylate the same site(s) which are phosphorylated autocatalytically and which are responsible for the induction of calcium-independent activity. The possible implications these findings have for the control of translation are discussed.Biochemical Journal 08/1993; 293 ( Pt 1):31-4. · 4.90 Impact Factor