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Nitric oxide counteracts the hyperoxia-induced proliferation and proinflammatory responses of mouse astrocytes

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.71). 07/2011; 51(2):474-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.04.041
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Preclinical studies in the premature baboon evaluating the efficacy and potential toxicity of inhaled nitric oxide indicated a significant effect on astrocyte area density, suggesting phenotypic and functional changes in astrocytes upon exposure to nitric oxide. However, the effects of nitric oxide and oxygen, the two major therapeutic gases utilized in neonatal intensive care, on astrocyte morphology and function remain vastly unknown. Herein, we report that exposure of mouse neonatal cortical astrocytes to hyperoxia results in a proinflammatory phenotype and increase in proliferation without significant changes in cellular morphology or levels of intermediate filament proteins. The proinflammatory phenotype was evident by a significant increase in cellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and a concomitant increase in prostaglandin E(2) secretion, a decline in the intracellular and secreted levels of apolipoprotein E, and a significant increase in the intracellular levels of clusterin. This proinflammatory phenotype was not evident upon simultaneous exposure to hyperoxia and nitric oxide. These results suggest that exposure to nitric oxide in the setting of hyperoxia confers unrecognized beneficial effects by suppressing astrocytic inflammation.

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    ABSTRACT: Background During cerebral inflammation uracil nucleotides leak to the extracellular medium and activate glial pyrimidine receptors contributing to the development of a reactive phenotype. Chronically activated microglia acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype that favors neuronal differentiation, but the impact of these microglia on astrogliosis is unknown. We investigated the contribution of pyrimidine receptors to microglia-astrocyte signaling in a chronic model of inflammation and its impact on astrogliosis. Methods Co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were chronically treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with uracil nucleotides for 48 h. The effect of nucleotides was evaluated in methyl-[3H]-thymidine incorporation. Western blot and immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression of P2Y6 receptors and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Nitric oxide (NO) release was quantified through Griess reaction. Cell death was also investigated by the LDH assay and by the TUNEL assay or Hoechst 33258 staining. Results UTP, UDP (0.001 to 1 mM) or PSB 0474 (0.01 to 10 µM) inhibited cell proliferation up to 43 ± 2% (n = 10, P<0.05), an effect prevented by the selective P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS 2578 (1 µM). UTP was rapidly metabolized into UDP, which had a longer half-life. The inhibitory effect of UDP (1 mM) was abolished by phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Both UDP (1 mM) and PSB 0474 (10 µM) increased NO release up to 199 ± 20% (n = 4, P <0.05), an effect dependent on P2Y6 receptors-PLC-PKC pathway activation, indicating that this pathway mediates NO release. Western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that P2Y6 receptors were expressed in the cultures being mainly localized in microglia. Moreover, the expression of iNOS was mainly observed in microglia and was upregulated by UDP (1 mM) or PSB 0474 (10 µM). UDP-mediated NO release induced apoptosis in astrocytes, but not in microglia. Conclusions In LPS treated co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia, UTP is rapidly converted into UDP, which activates P2Y6 receptors inducing the release of NO by microglia that causes astrocyte apoptosis, thus controlling their rate of proliferation and preventing an excessive astrogliosis.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 09/2014; 11(1):141. DOI:10.1186/s12974-014-0141-3 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background During cerebral inflammation uracil nucleotides leak to the extracellular medium and activate glial pyrimidine receptors contributing to the development of a reactive phenotype. Chronically activated microglia acquire an anti-inflammatory phenotype that favors neuronal differentiation, but the impact of these microglia on astrogliosis is unknown. We investigated the contribution of pyrimidine receptors to microglia-astrocyte signaling in a chronic model of inflammation and its impact on astrogliosis.Methods Co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were chronically treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with uracil nucleotides for 48 h. The effect of nucleotides was evaluated in methyl-[3H]-thymidine incorporation. Western blot and immunofluorescence was performed to detect the expression of P2Y6 receptors and the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Nitric oxide (NO) release was quantified through Griess reaction. Cell death was also investigated by the LDH assay and by the TUNEL assay or Hoechst 33258 staining.ResultsUTP, UDP (0.001 to 1 mM) or PSB 0474 (0.01 to 10 ¿M) inhibited cell proliferation up to 43¿±¿2% (n¿=¿10, P <0.05), an effect prevented by the selective P2Y6 receptor antagonist MRS 2578 (1 ¿M). UTP was rapidly metabolized into UDP, which had a longer half-life. The inhibitory effect of UDP (1 mM) was abolished by phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C (PKC) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Both UDP (1 mM) and PSB 0474 (10 ¿M) increased NO release up to 199¿±¿20% (n¿=¿4, P <0.05), an effect dependent on P2Y6 receptors-PLC-PKC pathway activation, indicating that this pathway mediates NO release. Western blot and immunocytochemistry analysis indicated that P2Y6 receptors were expressed in the cultures being mainly localized in microglia. Moreover, the expression of iNOS was mainly observed in microglia and was upregulated by UDP (1 mM) or PSB 0474 (10 ¿M). UDP-mediated NO release induced apoptosis in astrocytes, but not in microglia.Conclusions In LPS treated co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia, UTP is rapidly converted into UDP, which activates P2Y6 receptors inducing the release of NO by microglia that causes astrocyte apoptosis, thus controlling their rate of proliferation and preventing an excessive astrogliosis.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 09/2014; 11(1):141. · 4.90 Impact Factor

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