Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: Glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning

Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Lifton Palace Leeds, UK.
Nutritional Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.27). 03/2011; 14(2):66-71. DOI: 10.1179/1476830511Y.0000000002
Source: PubMed


Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption.

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    • "Typically, glucose levels will have returned to baseline at this late postprandial stage, however, hyperglycaemia induced by a high GL meal, is associated with other metabolic responses which potentially have a negative impact on cognitive function such as increased insulin and cortisol concentrations, oxidative stress, increased free fatty acids and increased inflammatory markers [11] [30]. Furthermore, the second meal cognitive effect [24] indicates that GI/GL nutritional interventions may influence cognitive function substantially later than the immediate postprandial phase. The mechanisms which potentially underlie the association between IGT, obesity and cognitive impairment are discussed in detail elsewhere [4] [5] [31] and are beyond the scope of this paper. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims There has been no systematic investigation of the individual and combined effects of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and obesity on cognitive function in the absence of ageing. The aims were to examine the effects of IGT and increased waist circumference on cognitive function in ostensibly healthy adults, and to investigate whether a low glycaemic load (GL) breakfast can attenuate cognitive impairments in these populations. Methods and Results Sixty five females aged 30–50 years were classified into one of four groups following waist circumference (WC) measurements and an oral glucose tolerance test: NGT/low WC (n=25), NGT/high WC (n=22), IGT/low WC (n=9), IGT/high WC (n=9). Memory, psychomotor and executive functions were examined 30 and 120 minutes after consuming low GL, high GL and water breakfasts according to a randomised, crossover, counterbalanced design. IGT was associated with impairment of verbal and spatial memory, and psychomotor function relative to females with NGT, independent of waist circumference. Increased waist circumference was associated with impairment of verbal memory and executive function relative to females with low WC, independent of IGT. Consumption of the LGL breakfast attenuated verbal memory impairment in the IGT/high WC group relative to the HGL breakfast and no energy control. Conclusion Increased central adiposity and abnormalities in glucose tolerance preceding type 2 diabetes can have demonstrable negative effects on cognitive function, even in ostensibly healthy, middle-aged females. The potential for GL manipulations to modulate glycaemic response and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes and obesity merits further investigation.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 10/2014; 24(10). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.04.015 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent data in adults suggest that glycemic index of the evening meal may affect cognition in the following morning . In particular, high glycemic index dinner was associated with a better verbal recall 90 min after breakfast than a low glycemic index evening meal (Lamport et al., 2011). This effect was associated with increased blood glucose in the post-breakfast phase when a high glycemic index evening meal was consumed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Skipping breakfast influences cognitive performance. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the variation of hormonal and metabolic postprandial parameters induced by breakfast consumption or fasting and cognitive performance in obese children. Cross-sectional study for repeated measures. Memory and attention assessment tests, hormones and nutrient oxidation were measured before and after consuming breakfast vs fasting in 10 prepubertal obese children. Fasting induced a significant (P<0.05) increase of the Overall Index of the Continuous Performance Test II (a global index of inattention) and the Test of Memory and Learning Word Selective Reminding (a test of verbal memory), whereas no changes were found after breakfast. Fasting was associated with a reduction of insulin and an increase in glucagon, with no changes in glucose. The increase in inattention was associated with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation (ρ=-0.66, P<0.05). We found no difference in the area under the curve of peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 after breakfast or fasting, whereas Ghrelin was significantly lower. No association between postprandial hormone variation and cognitive performance was found. Attention and visual memory performance in the morning were reduced when the children skipped breakfast. No association was found with hormones or metabolic changes, but we did find an association with a reduction of carbohydrate oxidation. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings need confirmation in larger sample size.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2012; 66(3):314-21. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2011.206 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Literature reviews suggest flavonoids, a sub-class of polyphenols, are beneficial for cognition. This is the first review examining the effect of consumption of all polyphenol groups on cognitive function. Inclusion criteria were polyphenol vs. control interventions and epidemiological studies with an objective measure of cognitive function. Participants were healthy or mildly cognitively impaired adults. Studies were excluded if clinical assessment or diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, or cognitive impairment was the sole measure of cognitive function, or if the polyphenol was present with potentially confounding compounds such as caffeine (e.g. tea studies) or Ginkgo Biloba. 28 studies were identified; 4 berry juice studies, 4 cocoa studies, 13 isoflavone supplement studies, 3 other supplement studies, and 4 epidemiological surveys. Overall, 16 studies reported cognitive benefits following polyphenol consumption. Evidence suggests that consuming additional polyphenols in the diet can lead to cognitive benefits, however, the observed effects were small. Declarative memory and particularly spatial memory appear most sensitive to polyphenol consumption and effects may differ depending on polyphenol source. Polyphenol berry fruit juice consumption was most beneficial for immediate verbal memory, whereas isoflavone based interventions were associated with significant improvements for delayed spatial memory and executive function. Comparison between studies was hampered by methodological inconsistencies. Hence, there was no clear evidence for an association between cognitive outcomes and polyphenol dose response, duration of intervention, or population studied. In conclusion, however, the findings do imply that polyphenol consumption has potential to benefit cognition both acutely and chronically.
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