Protective effect of aminoguanidine against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress and renal damage in rats.
ABSTRACT Cyclophosphamide (CP) is widely used in the treatment of tumors and B-cell malignant disease, such as lymphoma, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Renal damage is one of the dose-limiting side effects of CP. Oxidative stress is reported to play important roles in CP-induced renal damage.
To find out whether aminoguanidine (AG) protects against CP-induced oxidative stress and renal damage.
Renal damage was induced in the rats by administration of a single injection of CP at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. For the AG pretreatment studies, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with AG at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight 1 hour before administration of CP. The control rats received AG or saline alone. All the rats were killed 16 hours after the administration of CP or saline. The kidneys were used for histological examination by light microscopy and biochemical assays--malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S transferase (GSTase), catalase, glutathione reductase, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration.
Pretreatment with AG attenuated CP-induced renal damage histologically. Pretreatment with AG prevented CP-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, depletion of reduced GSH, and loss of activities of the antioxidant enzymes including GPx, catalase, and GSTase and also MPO activity.
The results of the present study reveal that AG can prevent CP-induced renal damage by inhibiting oxidative stress. Thus, AG may be useful for prevention of the nephrotoxicity of CP.
- SourceAvailable from: Ralf Herwig[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As the conventional approach to assess the potential of a chemical to cause cancer in humans still includes the 2-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassay, development of alternative methodologies is needed. In the present study, the transcriptomics responses following exposure to genotoxic (GTX) and non-genotoxic (NGTX) hepatocarcinogens and non-carcinogens (NC) in five liver-based in vitro models, namely conventional and epigenetically-stabilized cultures of primary rat hepatocytes, the human hepatoma-derived cell lines HepaRG and HepG2 and human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hES-Heps), are examined. For full characterization of the systems, several bioinformatics approaches are employed including gene-based, ConsensusPathwayDB-based and classification analysis. They provide convincingly similar outcomes, namely that upon exposure to carcinogens, the HepaRG generates a gene classifier(1) able to discriminate the GTX carcinogens from the NGTX carcinogens and NC. The other in vitro models also yield cancer-relevant characteristic gene groups for the GTX exposure, but some genes are also deregulated by the NGTX carcinogens and NC. Irrespective of the tested in vitro model, the most uniformly expressed pathways following GTX exposure are the p53 and those that are subsequently-induced. The NGTX carcinogens triggered no characteristic cancer-relevant gene profiles in all liver-based in vitro systems. In conclusion, liver-based in vitro models coupled with transcriptomics techniques, especially in the case when the HepaRG cell line is used, represent valuable tools for obtaining insight into the mechanism of action and identification of GTX carcinogens.Carcinogenesis 02/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor