Cyclophosphamide (CP) is widely used in the treatment of tumors and B-cell malignant disease, such as lymphoma, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Renal damage is one of the dose-limiting side effects of CP. Oxidative stress is reported to play important roles in CP-induced renal damage.
To find out whether aminoguanidine (AG) protects against CP-induced oxidative stress and renal damage.
Renal damage was induced in the rats by administration of a single injection of CP at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. For the AG pretreatment studies, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with AG at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight 1 hour before administration of CP. The control rats received AG or saline alone. All the rats were killed 16 hours after the administration of CP or saline. The kidneys were used for histological examination by light microscopy and biochemical assays--malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S transferase (GSTase), catalase, glutathione reductase, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration.
Pretreatment with AG attenuated CP-induced renal damage histologically. Pretreatment with AG prevented CP-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, depletion of reduced GSH, and loss of activities of the antioxidant enzymes including GPx, catalase, and GSTase and also MPO activity.
The results of the present study reveal that AG can prevent CP-induced renal damage by inhibiting oxidative stress. Thus, AG may be useful for prevention of the nephrotoxicity of CP.
"Next, ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture had no effect on LLCPK1 cell damage, but the cell viability was significantly increased after heat-processing at 120℃. In particular, 10 μg/mL of glucose-glycine mixture completely recovered viability of LLC-PK1 cells to 103% and its effect was quite stronger than aminoguanidine which has a protective effect on renal damage by inhibiting oxidative stress . The protective effect of MRPs on oxidative renal cell damage was suggested to be mediated by its direct free radical scavenging activity, whereas less-polar ginsenosides exert its antioxidant activity by modulating the activity of metabolizing enzymes and/or interfering with gene transcription related to oxidative stress in cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species play critical role in kidney damage. Free radical-scavenging activities of Panax ginseng are known to be increased by heat-processing. The structural change of ginsenoside and the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) are closely related to the increased free radical-scavenging activities. In the present study, we have demonstrated the Maillard reaction model experiment using ginsenoside Re and glycine mixture to identify the renoprotective effect of MRPs from ginseng or ginsenosides. Ginsenoside Re was transformed into less-polar ginsenosides, namely Rg2, Rg6 and F4 by heat-processing. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-glycine mixture was increased in a temperature-dependant manner by heatprocessing. The improved free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant MRPs which led to the protection of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Although the free radical scavenging activities of less-polar ginsenosides were weak, they could protect LLC-PK1 cells from oxidative stress. Therefore, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effects against oxidative renal damage.
Journal of ginseng research 07/2012; 36(3):256-262. DOI:10.5142/jgr.2012.36.2.256 · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cognitive disorders are likely to increase over the coming years (5-10). Vascular dementia (VaD) has heterogeneous pathology and is a challenge for clinicians. Current Alzheimer's disease drugs have had limited clinical efficacy in treating VaD and none have been approved by major regulatory authorities specifically for this disease. Role of iNOS and NADPH-oxidase have been reported in various pathological conditions but there role in hypertension (Hypt) induced VaD is still unclear. This research work investigates the salutiferous effect of aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor and 4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyacetophenone (HMAP), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor in Hypt induced VaD in rats. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-S) hypertension has been used for development of VaD in rats. Morris water-maze was used for testing learning and memory. Vascular system assessment was done by testing endothelial function. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), oxidative stress [aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and brain glutathione (GSH)], nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) and cholinergic activity (brain acetyl cholinesterase activity-AChE) were also measured. DOCA-S treated rats have shown increased MABP with impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate & brain GSH levels along with increase in serum & brain TBARS, and brain AChE activity. AG as well as HMAP significantly convalesce Hypt induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that AG, an iNOS inhibitor and HMAP, a NADPH-oxidase inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of Hypt induced VaD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginsenoside Re, one of the major triol type ginsenosides contained in Panax ginseng, has a hydrophobic four-ring steroid-like structure with hydrophilic sugar moieties at carbon-3 and -20. The aim of the present study was to identify the changes in structure and antioxidant activity of ginsenoside Re by the Maillard reaction, which has not been reported yet. The free radical-scavenging activity of ginsenoside Re-alanine mixture was increased by heat-processing. Ginsenoside Re was gradually changed into Rg(2), Rg(6) and F(4) by heat-processing, and the glucosyl moiety at carbon-20 was separated. The improved-free radical-scavenging activity by heat-processing was mediated by the generation of antioxidant Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Antioxidant MRPs were generated from the reaction of glucose and alanine. Based on the viability results of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, MRPs and less-polar ginsenosides contributed to the combined renoprotective effect against oxidative renal damage. Maillard reaction is importantly involved in the increased antioxidant effect of ginsenoside by heat-processing.
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