The most important risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is reasonable to assume that outdoor workers with a long history of work-related UV exposure are at increased risk of developing BCC.
To analyse systematically the epidemiological literature concerning the evidence of an association between occupational UV exposure and BCC risk in outdoor workers.
Systematic literature review of cohort studies and case-control studies providing data on occupational UV exposure and BCC occurrence. PubMed (up to 28 January 2011) was searched, supplemented by hand searching and consultation of experts in the field. The association between occupational UV exposure and BCC risk is presented as odds ratios (ORs). A random-effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis including meta-regression on study-specific covariates were performed.
Twenty-four relevant epidemiological studies (five cohort studies, 19 case-control studies) were identified. Twenty-three studies reported sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR for the association between outdoor work and BCC risk was 1·43 (95% confidence interval 1·23-1·66; P = 0·0001). Studies adjusting for sex (P < 0·0001) and individual nonoccupational UV exposure (P = 0·014) showed a significantly stronger association of occupational UV exposure and BCC risk. Meta-regression revealed a significant inverse relationship between occupational UV radiation exposure and BCC risk with latitude (P = 0·015).
Published epidemiological literature indicates that outdoor workers are at significantly increased risk for BCC. This finding is highly relevant for health policy to stimulate the implementation of effective prevention strategies.
"Entomologists are exposed to more generic field, laboratory and office exposures such as extreme temperature, traffic accidents , solar radiation, musculoskeletal and psychosocial problems, and hazards associated with other animals, such as snakes (International Labor Organization, 2012). These may lead to a range of adverse health outcomes, from direct associations, such as skin cancer from prolonged sun exposure in field work (Bauer et al., 2011; Schmitt et al., 2011), to less tangible postural and overuse problems with intensive microscopy. Despite the high theoretical risk of adverse work-related health outcomes for entomologists, no systematic review has been conducted to provide high level evidence of such a risk. "
"Other studies have identified that outdoor workers are likely to spend significant amounts of time in the sun during non-work hours [11,12]. Two meta-analyses demonstrated a clear association between outdoor work and increased risk of SCC  and BCC . There may be a link between risk of developing melanoma and outdoor work although the evidence is less clear (reviewed in ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outdoor workers are at high risk of harmful ultraviolet radiation exposure and are identified as an at risk group for the development of skin cancer. This systematic evidence based review provides an update to a previous review published in 2007 about interventions for the prevention of skin cancer in outdoor workers.
This review includes interventions published between 2007 - 2012 and presents findings about sun protection behaviours and/or objective measures of skin cancer risk. Six papers met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Large studies with extended follow-up times demonstrated the efficacy of educational and multi-component interventions to increase sun protection, with some higher use of personal protective equipment such as sunscreen. However, there is less evidence for the effectiveness of policy or specific intervention components.
Further research aimed at improving overall attitudes towards sun protection in outdoor workers is needed to provide an overarching framework.
BMC Research Notes 01/2014; 7(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-10
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased sun exposure or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. A dose-dependent increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin was found associated with exposure to Psoralen and UVA irradiation. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the aetiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive colour of the skin and depends on the geographical zone. The highest incidence rates have been reported from Queensland, Australia with 56 new cases per year per 100,000 for men and 43 for women. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilisation in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. The tumor thickness is the most important prognostic factor in primary melanoma. There is an ongoing trend towards thin melanoma since the last two decades. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the hypothesis that the majority of all melanoma cases are caused, at least in part, by excessive exposure to sunlight. In contrast to squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma risk seems not to be associated with cumulative, but intermittent exposure to sunlight. Therefore campaigns for prevention and early detection are necessary.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 02/2008; 624:89-103. DOI:10.1007/978-0-387-77574-6_8 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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