Meningococcal Disease: Shifting Epidemiology and Genetic Mechanisms That May Contribute to Serogroup C Virulence

Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road Northeast, MS C-09, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA, .
Current Infectious Disease Reports (Impact Factor: 1.68). 05/2011; 13(4):374-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11908-011-0195-7
Source: PubMed


During the past decade, monovalent serogroup C and quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W135, Y) meningococcal vaccination programs have been introduced in multiple industrialized countries. Many of these programs have been successful in reducing the burden of disease due to vaccine-preventable serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis in target age groups. As a result, disease burden in these countries has decreased and is primarily serogroup B, which is not vaccine preventable. Despite the success of these programs, meningococcal disease continues to occur and there is always concern that serogroup C organisms will adapt their virulence mechanisms to escape pressure from vaccination. This review highlights the current epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Europe and United States, as well as genetic mechanisms that may affect virulence of serogroup C strains and effectiveness of new vaccines.

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    • "From 1998 to 2007, serogroup C (MenC) disease resulted in the highest case fatality ratio (14.6) among the three serogroups [1]. MenC often results in more severe sequelae in its survivors and has a predilection to cause outbreaks [2] [3] [4]. Sequence type (ST) 11/electrophoretic type (ET) 37 clonal complex was responsible for outbreaks in U.S. army military recruits in the 1960s and continues to cause outbreaks in the U.S. today [1] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ≥8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ≥8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ≥8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14μg/mL at baseline, 1.07μg/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66μg/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels of circulating antibody.
    Vaccine 05/2014; 32(30). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.001 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiology of a community outbreak of Meningococcal C disease in Northland in 2011, and national trends in serogroup C disease in New Zealand. Notification data from EpiSurv for all meningococcal C cases were analysed for 2011 for Northland and for the period 2001-2011 nationally. In 2011, the rate of group C meningococcal disease for the population in the Whangarei district aged less than 20 years was 27.6 cases per 100,000 population (6 cases) compared with 17.6 cases per 100,000 population under 20 years (8 cases) in the Northland District Health Board (DHB). All except one case were under 20 years of age. The case fatality rate was 33%. Nationally the rate of meningococcal C disease has fluctuated over the last decade, with an increasing trend apparent since 2007. There has been a noticeable increase over the last 3 years of group C cases infected with the C:P1.5-1,10-8 strain (including all of the Northland cases). This strain has also been associated with a higher case fatality rate (16% in the period 2007-2011). Meningococcal C disease in New Zealand, although still less common than group B, is poorly understood. The relationships between carriage, invasive disease and community outbreaks deserve greater study. Active monitoring of surveillance data is warranted to ensure timely funded introduction of the highly effective meningococcal C conjugate vaccine on to the national immunisation schedule when appropriate, given increasing disease rates, the high case fatality rate and significant Maori non-Maori inequities in disease incidence.
    The New Zealand medical journal 06/2013; 126(1373):40-45.