The Immunomodulatory Effects of Albumin In Vitro and In Vivo

Division of Critical Care Medicine, The Kindervelt Laboratory for Critical Care Medicine Research, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 04/2011; 2011:691928. DOI: 10.1155/2011/691928
Source: PubMed


Albumin appears to have proinflammatory effects in vitro. We hypothesized that albumin would induce a state of tolerance to subsequent administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro and in vivo. RAW264.7 and primary peritoneal macrophages were treated with increasing doses of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and harvested for NF-κB luciferase reporter assay or TNF-α ELISA. In separate experiments, RAW264.7 cells were preconditioned with 1 mg/mL BSA for 18 h prior to LPS (10 μg/mL) treatment and harvested for NF-κB luciferase reporter assay or TNF-α ELISA. Finally, C57Bl/6 mice were preconditioned with albumin via intraperitoneal administration 18 h prior to a lethal dose of LPS (60 mg/kg body wt). Blood was collected at 6 h after LPS administration for TNF-α ELISA. Albumin produced a dose-dependent and TLR-4-dependent increase in NF-κB activation and TNF-α gene expression in vitro. Albumin preconditioning abrogated the LPS-mediated increase in NF-κB activation and TNF-α gene expression in vitro and in vivo. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be elucidated.

Download full-text


Available from: Basilia Zingarelli, Jul 15, 2014
  • Source
    • "As in a previous study of isolated adipocytes [20], cytokines were massively released when adipose tissue pieces were incubated in the presence of 0.1% or 1% BSA. Our results suggest that this effect of BSA may be mediated by a high concentration of endotoxin although immunomodulatory effects of albumin, not due to endotoxin contamination, also has been reported [34]. Depending on the cell/tissue type, endotoxin has a variety of effects mediated at the transcriptional and/or translational level. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue (AT) contributes to metabolic dysfunction through imbalanced production of adipokines, including cytokines. Visceral AT in particular is associated with metabolic disorders, indicating a specific secretory status. The relative significance of different human AT depots in adipokine release is not fully known. Further, previous in vitro systems usually included medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), which may induce cytokine release. Our aim was to compare release of a number of adipokines/cytokines - all implicated in insulin resistance - from human subcutaneous and visceral AT in a short-term incubation system minimizing cytokine induction and including repeated measurements during 24 h. A prerequisite was to evaluate a potential alternative to BSA in the incubation medium. Subcutaneous and/or visceral AT from 17 patients (age 20-68 years; BMI 22.6-56.7 kg/m2) undergoing elective surgery was incubated for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h in medium with or without 1% BSA or human serum albumin (HSA). Medium concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, nine cytokines, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), and omentin were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay or ELISA. Adipocyte size, AT macrophage density, and medium concentrations of endotoxin were determined. Cytokine release was induced by BSA but not by HSA. In evaluation of the final incubation protocol including 1% HSA, and as expected, adiponectin release was higher from subcutaneous biopsies of nonobese than of obese subjects and inversely associated with adipocyte size; omentin was released almost exclusively from visceral AT. Exploratory incubations revealed more abundant release of chemerin, cytokines (except IL-6), and DPP4 from the visceral depot, while adiponectin release was higher from subcutaneous than visceral AT. Release was linear for a maximum of 2-6 h. Macrophage density was higher in visceral than subcutaneous AT. Levels of endotoxin in the medium were negligible. Adiponectin, chemerin, many cytokines, and DPP4 are released from human AT in a depot-dependent manner. These results highlight functional differences between visceral and subcutaneous AT, and a mechanistic link between regional fat accumulation and metabolic disorders. Supplementation of human AT incubation medium with HSA rather than BSA is recommended to minimize induction of cytokine release.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 01/2014; 14(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1472-6823-14-7 · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to analyze bovine immune reactions against the Gram-negative bacterial vaccine, bovine whole-blood culture was used to investigate the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We also examined the interaction between LPS and aluminum hydroxide gel for endotoxin activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses of whole bovine blood. Alteration in the mRNA concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-10 in whole-blood culture at 4h after stimulation with different doses of LPS was observed and determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The mRNA concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β changed in a dose-dependent manner and differed depending on the type of LPS. Limulus test revealed that endotoxin activity was remarkably reduced when aluminum hydroxide gel was added to LPS. In contrast, the mRNA concentration of TNF-α in whole bovine blood was enhanced by LPS mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. These results suggest that bovine whole-blood culture can be utilized to detect endotoxin activity of Gram-negative bacterial vaccines. In addition, whole-blood culture offers several advantages, such as ease of performance, few preparation artifacts, and a physiological cell environment, for investigating bovine immune response compared with the Limulus test.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 02/2013; 153(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.02.002 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 11/2013; 108(7):865-872. DOI:10.1590/0074-0276130659 · 1.59 Impact Factor