Clear-cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: molecular and immunohistochemical analysis with emphasis on the von Hippel-Lindau gene and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway-related proteins

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 05/2011; 24(9):1207-20. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2011.80
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over the past few years several investigators have independently described unique low-grade renal epithelial neoplasms with clear cytoplasm, focal to diffuse papillary architecture, and occasional leiomyomatous stromal metaplasia that are not currently recognized in the World Health Organization classification of renal tumors. These tumors have been referred to by a variety of names including clear-cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and recently "clear-cell tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma". On the basis of the available data, such tumors are positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), while being negative for CD10, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), and TFE3. These tumors reportedly lack trisomies of chromosomes 7 and 17, deletions of 3p25, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations, and VHL promoter hypermethylation. Herein, we report on nine cases of this tumor emphasizing detailed studies of the VHL gene and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Molecular studies performed included VHL mutational analysis, copy number changes assessed using single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and qRT-PCR for VHL mRNA expression. Immunohistochemical stains for markers of HIF pathway activation (HIF-1α, CA9, and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1)) as well as other relevant markers (CK7, CD10, AMACR, and TFE3) were performed. None of our tumors harbored VHL gene mutations, losses of chromosomal region 3p25, or trisomies of chromosomes 7 or 17. VHL mRNA was overexpressed in our tumors relative to normal renal tissue and clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. All cases showed strong co-expression of CK7, HIF-1α, GLUT-1, and CA9. No expression of TFE3, CD10, or AMACR was seen. The morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of these unique low-grade tumors are sufficiently distinct to allow separation from other renal cell carcinoma subtypes. The co-expression of CA9, HIF-1α, and GLUT-1 in the absence of VHL gene alterations in clear-cell papillary renal cell carcinoma suggests activation of the HIF pathway by non-VHL-dependent mechanisms.

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    ABSTRACT: The disease concept of clear cell (tubulo) papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) as a distinct subtype of renal cell carcinoma has been recently established. First described in the setting of end stage renal disease, this tumor type is more frequently recognized and encountered in a sporadic setting. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent understanding of this tumor. Macroscopically, tumors are well circumscribed with well-developed tumor capsule. Histologically, the tumor cells are cuboidal to low columnar cell with clear cytoplasm and papillary and tubulo-papillary configuration. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells generally show diffuse expression for cytokeratin 7, CA9 (cup-shaped pattern), HIF-1, GLUT-1 and high molecular weight cytokeratin, but negative for AMACR, RCC Ma and TFE3. CD10 is negative or focally positive in most tumors. Genetically, this tumor has no characteristics of clear cell RCC or papillary RCC. Prognostically, patients with CCP-RCC behave in an indolent fashion in all previously reported cases. In conclusion, although this tumor has been integrated into recent International Society of Urologic Pathology Classification of renal neoplasia, both aspects of disease concept and clinical behavior are yet to be fully elucidated. Further publications of large cohorts of patients will truly help understand the biologic potential and the molecular underpinnings of this tumor type.
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal microarray analysis using novel Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology demonstrated 2,570 kb copy neutral LOH of 10q11.22 in two clear cell papillary renal cell carcinomas. In addition, one of the tumors had a big 29,784 kb deletion of 13q11-q14.2. There were two variants of unknown significance, a 2,509 kb gain of Xp22.33 and a 257 kb homozygous deletion of 8p11.22. The somatic mutation panel containing 74 mutations in nine genes did not reveal any mutations. Besides identification of submicroscopic duplications or deletions, SNP microarrays can reveal abnormal allelic imbalances including LOH and copy neutral LOH, which cannot be recognized by chromosome, FISH, and non-SNP microarray arrays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating copy neutral LOH of 10q11.22 in clear cell papillary renal cell carcinomas using the new MIP SNP OncoScan FFPE Assay Kit on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples.
    Pathology - Research and Practice 10/2014; 210(12). DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2014.10.001 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with leiomyomatous stroma (RCCLS) is a recently recognized entity with indolent biological behavior. The diagnostic implication of absence/presence of VHL gene mutation, VHL hypermethylation, or/and loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 3p (LOH 3p) is widely discussed. Criteria for establishing a diagnosis of RCCLS are still lacking. Fifteen RCCLSs were retrieved from our registry. The cases were studied with consideration to the morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics. All cases were composed of low-grade epithelial cells with clear cytoplasm arranged in nests intermingled with abundant leiomyomatous stroma. Age range of the patients was 33 to 78 years. The tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 11 cm. Six of the patients were males, and 9, females. Of the 15 tumors sent for molecular genetic testing, only 12 cases were analyzable. All cases were analyzable immunohistochemically. Of 12 of these cases, 5 showed complete absence of VHL gene mutation, VHL hypermethylation, and LOH 3p. Of these 5 cases, 3 were positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK 7). All of the 5 cases were positive for carbonic anhydrase 9, vimentin, and CD10. The remaining 7 of 12 genetically analyzable cases were found to have had VHL hypermethylation, LOH 3p, VHL gene mutation, or a combination of the former 2 characteristics. These 7 cases were positive for vimentin. Variable reactivity was found for CK 7, carbonic anhydrase 9, α-methylacyl-CoA racemase, and CD10. In 1 of these 7 cases, gains on chromosomes 7 and 17 as well as hypermethylation of VHL gene were found. This case was considered as clear cell RCC with aberrant status of chromosomes 7 and 17. Conclusions: (1) Leiomyomatous stroma is not specific for the so called RCCLS. It can be seen also in otherwise typical clear cell RCCs. (2) There are no characteristic morphological/immunohistochemical features unique for "RCCLS." (3) Our results indicate that only tumors with the absence of the VHL gene mutation, hypermethylation, and LOH 3p can be diagnosed as RCCLS. (4) Relation of RCCs with a prominent smooth muscle stroma to the renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor/clear cell papillary (tubopapillary) RCC is not clearly evident from our study and has to be further analyzed on larger cohort of the patients.
    Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 08/2014; 18(5). DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2014.08.004 · 1.11 Impact Factor


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