Carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in US cigarettes: three decades of remarkable neglect by the tobacco industry
ABSTRACT Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major US cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. There is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the US, particularly in the newer varieties introduced over the past decade.
Seventeen brands of cigarettes were purchased in April of 2010 from retail stores in Minnesota. TSNA levels were measured in the tobacco filler and smoke of these cigarettes.
In all brands, the sum of two potent carcinogenic TSNA--4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and N'-nitrosonornicotine--in cigarette filler averaged 2.54 (± 1.05) μg/g tobacco. This value is virtually identical to the sum of these two carcinogens reported for the tobacco of a US filtered cigarette in 1979. TSNA levels in smoke positively correlated with those in tobacco filler of the same cigarettes.
We found no indication that any meaningful attempt was made to reduce or at least control TSNA levels in the new varieties of the popular brands Marlboro and Camel introduced over the last decade. In light of the recently granted regulatory authority to the FDA over tobacco products, regulation of TSNA levels in cigarette tobacco should be strongly considered to reduce the levels of these potent carcinogens in cigarette smoke.
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ABSTRACT: Objective The examination of lung cancer by histology type is important for monitoring population trends that have implications for etiology and prevention, screening and clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. We provide a comprehensive description of recent histologic lung cancer incidence rates and trends in the U.S. using combined population-based registry data for the entire nation. Materials and Methods Histologic lung cancer incidence data was analyzed from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Standardized rates and trends were calculated for men and women by age, race/ethnicity, and U.S. Census region. Rate ratios were examined for differences in rates between men and women, and annual percent change was calculated to quantify changes in incidence rates over time. Results Trend analysis demonstrate that overall rates have decreased, but incidence has remained stable for women aged 50 or older. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were the two most common histologic subtypes. Adenocarcinoma rates continued to increase in men and women, and squamous cell rates increased in women only. All histologic subtype rates for white women exceeded rates for black women. Histologic rates for black men exceeded those for white men, except for small cell carcinoma. The incidence rate for Hispanics was nearly half the rate for blacks and whites. Conclusion The continuing rise in incidence of lung adenocarcinoma, the rise of squamous cell cancer in women, and differences by age, race, ethnicity and region points to the need to better understand factors acting in addition to, or in synergy with, cigarette smoking that may be contributing to observed differences in lung cancer histology.Lung Cancer 10/2014; 86(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2014.08.001 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, 1) is a potent tobacco-specific lung carcinogen believed to play a key role in the development of lung cancer in smokers. Metabolic activation of NNK to DNA damaging reactive intermediates proceeds via α-hydroxylation pathways. The end products of these pathways are excreted in urine of smokers as 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (keto acid, 3) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoic acid (hydroxy acid, 4). The sum of these biomarkers (after NaBH4 treatment), referred to as total hydroxy acid, could potentially be used to measure the extent of NNK metabolic activation in smokers. However, the same metabolites are formed from nicotine; therefore, there is a need to distinguish the NNK- and nicotine-derived keto and hydroxy acid in smokers' urine. We previously developed a unique methodology based on the use of [pyridine-D4]NNK ([D4]1), which metabolizes to the correspondingly labeled biomarkers. In this study, we developed a sensitive and reproducible assay for the detection and quantitation of total [pyridine-D4]hydroxy acid ([D4]4) in human urine. A two-step derivatization approach was used to convert [D4]4 to [pyridine-D4]methyl 4-hexanoyl-4-(3-pyridyl)butanoate ([D4]6), and an LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of this derivative with excellent sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The robustness and reproducibility of the assay was further confirmed by its application for the analysis of urine samples from 87 smokers who smoked [D4]1-containing cigarettes for one week. The measured level averaged 130 fmol/mL urine. The developed assay can be used in future studies that may require evaluation of the relative efficiency of NNK metabolic activation in humans.Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2014; 27(9). DOI:10.1021/tx5001915 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nails can stably accumulate substances for long periods of time, thus providing retrospective information regarding drugs of abuse and pharmaceutical use. Nails have several advantages over the conventional matrices, such as blood and urine, including a longer detection window (months to years), non-invasive sample collection, and easy storage and transport. These aspects make nails a very interesting matrix for forensic and clinical toxicology. Because of the low concentrations of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals present in nails and the complexity of the keratinized matrix, analytical methods need to be more sensitive, and sample preparation is crucial. This review summarizes the literature regarding the detection and quantification of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in nails, as well as the employed pre-analytical and analytical techniques. Additionally, the applications of nail analysis are reviewed. Finally, an overview of the challenges of nail analysis is provided, and guidelines for future research are proposed.Forensic Toxicology 12/2014; 33(1). DOI:10.1007/s11419-014-0258-1 · 5.76 Impact Factor