Carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in US cigarettes: three decades of remarkable neglect by the tobacco industry.
ABSTRACT Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major US cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. There is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the US, particularly in the newer varieties introduced over the past decade.
Seventeen brands of cigarettes were purchased in April of 2010 from retail stores in Minnesota. TSNA levels were measured in the tobacco filler and smoke of these cigarettes.
In all brands, the sum of two potent carcinogenic TSNA--4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and N'-nitrosonornicotine--in cigarette filler averaged 2.54 (± 1.05) μg/g tobacco. This value is virtually identical to the sum of these two carcinogens reported for the tobacco of a US filtered cigarette in 1979. TSNA levels in smoke positively correlated with those in tobacco filler of the same cigarettes.
We found no indication that any meaningful attempt was made to reduce or at least control TSNA levels in the new varieties of the popular brands Marlboro and Camel introduced over the last decade. In light of the recently granted regulatory authority to the FDA over tobacco products, regulation of TSNA levels in cigarette tobacco should be strongly considered to reduce the levels of these potent carcinogens in cigarette smoke.
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ABSTRACT: Nails can stably accumulate substances for long periods of time, thus providing retrospective information regarding drugs of abuse and pharmaceutical use. Nails have several advantages over the conventional matrices, such as blood and urine, including a longer detection window (months to years), non-invasive sample collection, and easy storage and transport. These aspects make nails a very interesting matrix for forensic and clinical toxicology. Because of the low concentrations of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals present in nails and the complexity of the keratinized matrix, analytical methods need to be more sensitive, and sample preparation is crucial. This review summarizes the literature regarding the detection and quantification of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in nails, as well as the employed pre-analytical and analytical techniques. Additionally, the applications of nail analysis are reviewed. Finally, an overview of the challenges of nail analysis is provided, and guidelines for future research are proposed.Forensic Toxicology 12/2014; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective The examination of lung cancer by histology type is important for monitoring population trends that have implications for etiology and prevention, screening and clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. We provide a comprehensive description of recent histologic lung cancer incidence rates and trends in the U.S. using combined population-based registry data for the entire nation. Materials and Methods Histologic lung cancer incidence data was analyzed from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Standardized rates and trends were calculated for men and women by age, race/ethnicity, and U.S. Census region. Rate ratios were examined for differences in rates between men and women, and annual percent change was calculated to quantify changes in incidence rates over time. Results Trend analysis demonstrate that overall rates have decreased, but incidence has remained stable for women aged 50 or older. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were the two most common histologic subtypes. Adenocarcinoma rates continued to increase in men and women, and squamous cell rates increased in women only. All histologic subtype rates for white women exceeded rates for black women. Histologic rates for black men exceeded those for white men, except for small cell carcinoma. The incidence rate for Hispanics was nearly half the rate for blacks and whites. Conclusion The continuing rise in incidence of lung adenocarcinoma, the rise of squamous cell cancer in women, and differences by age, race, ethnicity and region points to the need to better understand factors acting in addition to, or in synergy with, cigarette smoking that may be contributing to observed differences in lung cancer histology.Lung Cancer. 01/2014;
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ABSTRACT: To determine if maternal use of snuff (containing high levels of nicotine, low levels of nitrosamines and no combustion products) is associated with an increased risk of oral cleft malformations in the infant and whether cessation of snuff use or smoking before the antenatal booking influences the risk. A population-based cohort study was conducted on all live born infants, recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1999 through 2009 (n = 1 086 213). Risks of oral clefts were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses (using adjusted odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Among 975 866 infants that had information on maternal tobacco use, 1761 cases of oral clefts were diagnosed. More than 50% of the mothers who used snuff or smoked three months prior pregnancy stopped using before the antenatal booking. Almost 8% of the mothers were smoking at the antenatal booking and 1,1% of the mothers used snuff. Compared with infants of non-tobacco users, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of any oral cleft for infants of mothers who continued to use snuff or to smoke were 1.48 [1.00-2.21] and 1.19 [1.01-1.41], respectively. In contrast, in infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking, the corresponding risks were not increased (adjusted odds ratios [95% CI] were 0.71 [0.44-1.14] and 0.88 [0.73-1.05], respectively). Maternal snuff use or smoking in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of oral clefts. Infants of mothers who stopped using snuff or stopped smoking before the antenatal booking had no increased risk of oral cleft malformations. Oral snuff or other sources of nicotine should not be recommended as an alternative for smoke-cessation during pregnancy.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84715. · 3.53 Impact Factor