The Contemporary Concept of Significant Versus Insignificant Prostate Cancer
ABSTRACT The notion of insignificant prostate cancer (Ins-PCa) has progressively emerged in the past two decades. The clinical relevance of such a definition was based on the fact that low-grade, small-volume, and organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa) may be indolent and unlikely to progress to biologic significance in the absence of treatment.
To review the definition of Ins-PCa, its incidence, and the clinical impact of Ins-PCa on the contemporary management of PCa.
A review of the literature was performed using the Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with no restriction on language up to September 2010. The literature search used the following terms: insignificant, indolent, minute, microfocal, minimal, low volume, low risk, and prostate cancer.
The most commonly used criteria to define Ins-PCa are based on the pathologic assessment of the radical prostatectomy specimen: (1) Gleason score ≤ 6 without Gleason pattern 4 or 5, (2) organ-confined disease, and (3) tumour volume<0.5 cm(3). Several preoperative criteria and prognostication tools for predicting Ins-PCa have been suggested. Nomograms are best placed to estimate the risk of progression on an individualised basis, but a substantial proportion of men with a high probability of harbouring Ins-PCa are at risk for pathologic understaging and/or undergrading. Thus, there is an ongoing need for identifying novel and more accurate predictors of Ins-PCa to improve the distinction between insignificant versus significant disease and thus to promote the adequate management of PCa patients at low risk for progression.
The exciting challenge of obtaining the pretreatment diagnostic tools that can really distinguish insignificant from significant PCa should be one of the main objectives of urologists in the following years to decrease the risk of overtreatment of Ins-PCa.
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ABSTRACT: Differentiating significant cancer from insignificant cancer is a major challenge in active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer. We evaluated whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) grade from 3-T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is useful to exclude men with unfavorable pathological features from men meeting current AS eligibility criteria. Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, 117 potential AS candidates defined according to 2013 European Association of Urology guidelines who had undergone preoperative 3-T DW-MRI were included. A blinded uro-radiologist graded the level of suspicion from the ADC map using the Likert scale from 1 to 5. The rate of unfavorable pathological features was evaluated according to ADC grade. Unfavorable pathological features were defined as non-organ-confined disease or pathological Gleason score≥7 (4+3). The associations between unfavorable pathological features and clinical variables including ADC grade (>3 vs. ≤3) were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. The rates of unfavorable pathological features were 0.0% (0/14), 2.9% (1/34), 5.4% (2/37), 25.0% (6/24), and 37.5% (3/8) from grades 1 to 5 (P=0.002). The predictive accuracy was as high as 0.804. The rates were significantly different between low (≤3, 3.5%) and high (>3, 28.1%, P<0.001) grades. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75.0%, 78.1%, 28.1%, and 96.5%. ADC grade (odds ratio [OR], 10.696; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.675-42.773) was significantly associated with unfavorable pathological features, even after adjusting for other variables (OR, 11.274; 95% CI, 2.622-48.471). ADC grade from 3-T DW-MRI is useful to predict men with unfavorable pathologic features from AS candidates.
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ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose-response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between several measures of tobacco use and PCa mortality (primary outcome) and incidence (secondary outcome) including dose-response association. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant articles from prospective studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases (through January 21, 2014) and reference lists of relevant articles. Combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods. We also calculated population attributable risk (PAR) for smoking and PCa mortality. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We included 51 articles in this meta-analysis (11823 PCa deaths, 50349 incident cases, and 4082606 cohort participants). Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (RR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.31), with little evidence for heterogeneity and publication bias. The number of cigarettes smoked per day had a dose-response association with PCa mortality (p=0.02; RR for 20 cigarettes per day: 1.20). The PAR for cigarette smoking and PCa deaths in the United States and Europe were 6.7% and 9.5%, respectively, corresponding to >10000 deaths/year in these two regions. Current cigarette smoking was inversely associated with incident PCa (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), with high heterogeneity in the results. However, in studies completed in 1995 or earlier (considered as completed before the prostate-specific antigen screening era), ever smoking showed a positive association with incident PCa (RR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12) with little heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Combined evidence from observational studies shows a modest but statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and fatal PCa. Smoking appears to be a modifiable risk factor for PCa death. PATIENT SUMMARY: Smoking increases the chance of prostate cancer death. Not smoking prevents this harm and many other tobacco-related diseases.European Urology 12/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.08.059 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in American men, excluding skin cancer. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer varies from low-grade, slow growing tumors to high-grade aggressive tumors that may ultimately progress to metastases and cause death. Given the high incidence of men diagnosed with prostate cancer, conservative treatment strategies such as active surveillance are critical in the management of prostate cancer to reduce therapeutic complications of radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. In this review, we will review the role of multiparametric MRI in the selection and follow-up of patients on active surveillance.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:203906. DOI:10.1155/2014/203906 · 2.71 Impact Factor