Gene synthesis: methods and applications.
ABSTRACT DNA synthesis techniques and technologies are quickly becoming a cornerstone of modern molecular biology and play a pivotal role in the field of synthetic biology. The ability to synthesize whole genes, novel genetic pathways, and even entire genomes is no longer the dream it was 30 years ago. Using little more than a thermocycler, commercially synthesized oligonucleotides, and DNA polymerases, a standard molecular biology laboratory can synthesize several kilobase pairs of synthetic DNA in a week using existing techniques. Herein, we review the techniques used in the generation of synthetic DNA, from the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides to their assembly into long, custom sequences. Software and websites to facilitate the execution of these approaches are explored, and applications of DNA synthesis techniques to gene expression and synthetic biology are discussed. Finally, an example of automated gene synthesis from our own laboratory is provided.
Article: Engineered polymer-supported synthesis of 3'-carboxyalkyl-modified oligonucleotides and their applications in the construction of biochips for diagnosis of the diseases.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An engineered polymer support 5 has been prepared for the solid-phase assembly of 3'-carboxyalkyl-modified oligonucleotides using commonly available reagents. A two-step deprotection procedure resulted in the quantitative cleavage of oligonucleotides from the support and removal of the protecting groups from phosphodiesters and exocyclic amino groups of the nucleic bases. The fully deprotected oligomers, obtained in high yield, were desalted and analyzed on RP-HPLC. After characterization by MALDI-TOF, these carboxyalkylated oligonucleotides were immobilized onto the epoxy-functionalized glass microslides to prepare biochips. The performance of these biochips was evaluated under different sets of conditions and then successfully validated by the detection of base mismatches and human infectious disease, bacterial meningitis, caused by N. meningitidis.Bioconjugate Chemistry 03/2012; 23(3):664-70. · 4.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current gene synthesis methods allow the generation of long segments of dsDNA. We show that these techniques can be used to create synthetic regulatory elements and describe a method for the creation of completely defined, synthetic variants of the PHO5 promoter from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Overall, 128 promoters were assembled by high-temperature ligation, cloned into plasmids by isothermal assembly, maintained in E. coli, and consequently transformed into yeast by homologous recombination. Synthesis errors occurred at frequencies comparable to or lower than those achieved with current gene synthesis methods. The promoter synthesis method reported here is robust, fast, and readily accessible. Synthetically engineered promoter libraries will be useful tools for dissecting the intricacies of promoter input-output functions and may serve as tunable components for synthetic genetic networks.ACS Synthetic Biology. 05/2012;