Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and periodic limb movement disorder in children.

Fusion Sleep Medicine Program, Atlanta, GA 30024, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.2). 06/2011; 58(3):591-620. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2011.03.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been known for hundreds of years and were first reported in medicine in the 1600s. Clinicians must consider potential mimics, comorbid, and associated conditions when evaluating children with RLS symptoms. The traditional differentiation of RLS from periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is noted in children as well as adults. Because current pediatric RLS research is sparse, this article provides the most up-to-date evidence-based as well as consensus opinion-based information on the subject of childhood RLS and PLMD. Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical associations are discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred >= 5 days/month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported "yes, still have the problem." Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. -5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. -4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This narrative review describes the differential diagnosis of restless legs syndrome, and provides an overview of the evidence for the associations between RLS and potential comorbidities. Secondary causes of RLS and the characteristics of pediatric RLS are also discussed. Finally, management strategies for RLS are summarized. Methods: The review began with a comprehensive PubMed search for "restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease" in combination with the following: anxiety, arthritis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, cardiac, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities, depression, end-stage renal disease, erectile dysfunction, fibromyalgia, insomnia, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, mood disorder, multiple sclerosis, narcolepsy, neuropathy, obesity, pain, Parkinson's disease, polyneuropathy, pregnancy, psychiatric disorder, sleep disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and uremia. Additional papers were identified by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Results and Conclusions: Although clinical diagnosis of RLS can be straightforward, diagnostic challenges may arise when patients present with comorbid conditions. Comorbidities of RLS include insomnia, depressive and anxiety disorders, and pain disorders. Differential diagnosis is particularly important, as some of the medications used to treat insomnia and depression may exacerbate RLS symptoms. Appropriate diagnosis and management of RLS symptoms may benefit patient well-being and, in some cases, may lessen comorbid disease burden. Therefore, it is important that physicians are aware of the presence of RLS when treating patients with conditions that commonly co-occur with the disorder.
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