Intranasal c-di-GMP-adjuvanted plant-derived H5 influenza vaccine induces multifunctional Th1 CD4+ cells and strong mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice. Vaccine

Influenza Centre, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 05/2011; 29(31):4973-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.094
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vaccination is the best available measure of limiting the impact of the next influenza pandemic. Ideally, a candidate pandemic influenza vaccine should be easy to administer and should elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses. Production of influenza subunit antigen in transient plant expression systems is an alternative to overcome the bottleneck in vaccine supply during influenza pandemic. Furthermore, a needle-free intranasal influenza vaccine is an attractive approach, which may provide immunity at the portal of virus entry. The present study investigated the detailed humoral and cellular immune responses in mice vaccinated intranasally or intramuscularly with plant-derived influenza H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/05) antigen alone or formulated with bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) as adjuvant. The use of c-di-GMP as intramuscular adjuvant did not enhance the immune response to plant-derived influenza H5 antigen. However, intranasal c-di-GMP-adjuvanted vaccine induced strong mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses. Additionally, the intranasal vaccine elicited a balanced Th1/Th2 profile and, most importantly, high frequencies of multifunctional Th1 CD4(+) cells. Our results highlight that c-di-GMP is a promising mucosal adjuvant for pandemic influenza vaccine development.

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    • "Madhun et al. showed that c-di-GMP improved the immunogenicity of an intranasally delivered subunit influenza vaccine , compared to antigen only, by inducing strong mucosal and systemic immune responses [8]. Additionally, the authors showed that intranasal administration of the c-di-GMP adjuvanted antigen induced protective antibody titers and cellular immune responses that far exceeded the responses induced by intramuscular administration of the same vaccine [8]. Moreover, Svindland et al. tested vaccination with c-di-GMP combined with a second adjuvant, Chitosan, and showed that vaccination with the combination of these molecules can further improve the humoral and cellular immune responses against target antigens [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Annually influenza virus infections are responsible for hospitalization and mortality, especially in high risk groups. Constant antigenic changes in seasonal influenza viruses resulted from antigenic shifts and antigenic drifts, enable emerging of novel virus subtypes that may reduce current vaccine efficacy and impose the continuous revision of vaccine component. Currently available vaccines are usually limited by their production processes in terms of rapid adaptation to new circulating subtypes in high quantities meeting the global demand. Thus, new approaches to rapidly manufacture high yields of influenza vaccines are required. New technologies to reach maximal protection with minimal vaccine doses also need to be developed. In this study, we evaluated the systemic and local immunogenicity of a new double-adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered at the site of infection, the respiratory tract. This vaccine combines a plant-produced H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin antigen (HAC1), a silica nanoparticle-based (SiO2) drug delivery system and the mucosal adjuvant candidate bis-(3′,5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Mice were vaccinated by intratracheal route with HAC1/SiO2 or HAC1/c-di-GMP (single-adjuvanted vaccine) or HAC1/SiO2/c-di-GMP (double-adjuvanted vaccine) and evaluated for target-specific immune responses, such as hemagglutination inhibition and hemagglutinin-specific IgG titers, as well as local antibody (IgG and IgA) titers in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Furthermore, the HAC1-specific T-cell re-stimulation potential was assessed using precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) of vaccinated mice. The double-adjuvanted vaccine induced high systemic antibody responses comparable to the systemic vaccination control. In addition, it induced local IgG and IgA responses in the BAL. Furthermore, HAC1 induced a local T-cell response demonstrated by elevated IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in PCLS of c-di-GMP-vaccinated mice upon re-stimulation. Overall, the present study showed the potential of the double-adjuvanted vaccine to induce systemic humoral immune responses in intratracheally vaccinated mice. Furthermore, it induced a strong mucosal immune response, with evidence of antigen-primed T-cells in the lung.
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    • "Interestingly, we have shown that the use of c-di-nucleotides as mucosal adjuvants for virosomebased vaccine formulations resulted in the stimulation of polyfunctional T cells against flu antigens (Madhun et al., 2011). Additionally, this vaccine formulation promoted the induction of CD4 + cells with high cross-reactivity against different H5N1 strains (Madhun et al., 2011). Challenge studies on different mouse infection models (e.g. S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae ) also demonstrated that both intranasal and parenteral pre-treatment of mice with c-di-GMP alone or co-administrated with bacterial antigens protect against invasive bacterial infections (Karaolis et al., 2007a,b; Ogunniyi et al., 2008). "
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