ZNF580, a novel C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor, interacts with the TGF-β signal molecule Smad2.
ABSTRACT ZNF580 (gene ID 51157), a novel gene encoding a C2H2 (Cys2-His2) zinc-finger transcription factor, may be involved in the maintenance of vascular endothelium homoeostasis. To investigate the physiological role of the transcription factor ZNF580, we screened human foetal brain cDNA library with a yeast two-hybrid system and identified 14 proteins that interact with ZNF580. The interaction between ZNF580 and Smad2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Co-localization between endogenous ZNF580 and Smad2 was mainly found in the nuclei of EA.hy926 endothelial cells with immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that ZNF580 is a binding partner of Smad2 and is involved in the signal transduction of the TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β) signalling pathway, which provides a basis for additional research to investigate the role of ZNF580 in the maintenance of vascular endothelium homoeostasis and the onset of atherosclerotic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) arrests growth of epithelial cells by inducing the transcription of p15(Ink4B), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. In this study, we demonstrate that p15(Ink4B) induction was mediated by a TGF-beta-induced complex of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4 and Sp1. Mutations in the Sp1- or Smad-binding sequences decreased or abolished the TGF-beta responsiveness of the p15(Ink4B) promoter. Interference with, or deficiency in, Smad2, Smad3 or Smad4 functions also reduced or abolished the TGF-beta-dependent p15(Ink4B) induction, whereas the absence of Sp1 reduced the basal and TGF-beta-induced p15(Ink4B) transcription. In the nucleoprotein complex, Smad2 interacted through its C-domain with Sp1 and enhanced the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of Sp1. Smad3 interacted indirectly with Sp1 through its association with Smad2 and/or Smad4, and bound directly to the p15(Ink4B) promoter. Finally, Smad4 interacted through its N-domain with Sp1. Our data demonstrate the physical interactions and functional cooperativity of Sp1 with a complex of Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 in the induction of the p15(Ink4B) gene. These findings explain the tumor suppressor roles of Smad2 and Smad4 in growth arrest signaling by TGF-beta.The EMBO Journal 11/2000; 19(19):5178-93. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibits cell cycle progression, in part through up-regulation of gene expression of the p21(WAF1/Cip1) (p21) cell cycle inhibitor. Previously we have reported that the intracellular effectors of TGF-beta, Smad3 and Smad4, functionally cooperate with Sp1 to activate the human p21 promoter in hepatoma HepG2 cells. In this study we show that Smad3 and Smad4 when overexpressed in HaCaT keratinocytes lead to activation of the p21 promoter. Activation requires the binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 on the proximal promoter. Induction of the endogenous HaCaT p21 gene by TGF-beta1 is further enhanced after overexpression of Smad3 and Smad4, whereas dominant negative mutants of Smad3 and Smad4 and the inhibitory Smad7 all inhibit p21 induction by TGF-beta1 in a dose-dependent manner. We show that Sp1 expressed in the Sp1-deficient Drosophila SL-2 cells binds to the proximal p21 promoter sequences, whereas Smad proteins do not. In support of this finding, we show that DNA-binding domain mutants of Smad3 and Smad4 are capable of transactivating the p21 promoter as efficiently as wild type Smads. Co-expression of Smad3 with Smad4 and Sp1 in SL-2 cells or co-incubation of phosphorylated Smad3, Smad4, and Sp1 in vitro results in enhanced binding of Sp1 to the p21 proximal promoter sequences. We demonstrate that Sp1 physically and directly interacts with Smad2, Smad3, and weakly with Smad4 via their amino-terminal (Mad-Homology 1) domain. Finally, by using GAL4 fusion proteins we show that the glutamine-rich sequences in the transactivation domain of Sp1 contribute to the cooperativity with Smad proteins. In conclusion, Smad proteins play important roles in regulation of the p21 gene by TGF-beta, and the functional cooperation of Smad proteins with Sp1 involves the physical interaction of these two types of transcription factors.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2000; 275(38):29244-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The largest family of zinc-finger transcription factors comprises those containing the Krüppel-associated box (or KRAB domain), which are present only in tetrapod vertebrates. Many genes encoding KRAB-containing proteins are arranged in clusters in the human genome, with one cluster close to chromosome 9ql3 and others in centromeric and telomeric regions of other chromosomes, but other genes occur individually throughout the genome. The KRAB domain, which is found in the amino-terminal region of the proteins, behaves as a transcriptional repressor domain by binding to corepressor proteins, whereas the C2H2 zinc-finger motifs bind DNA. The functions currently proposed for members of the KRAB-containing protein family include transcriptional repression of RNA polymerase I, II, and III promoters and binding and splicing of RNA. Members of the family are involved in maintenance of the nucleolus, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neoplastic transformation.Genome biology 02/2003; 4(10):231. · 10.30 Impact Factor