Presynaptic filament dynamics in homologous recombination and DNA repair
ABSTRACT Homologous recombination (HR) is an essential genome stability mechanism used for high-fidelity repair of DNA double-strand breaks and for the recovery of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. The crucial homology search and DNA strand exchange steps of HR are catalyzed by presynaptic filaments-helical filaments of a recombinase enzyme bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Presynaptic filaments are fundamentally dynamic structures, the assembly, catalytic turnover, and disassembly of which must be closely coordinated with other elements of the DNA recombination, repair, and replication machinery in order for genome maintenance functions to be effective. Here, we reviewed the major dynamic elements controlling the assembly, activity, and disassembly of presynaptic filaments; some intrinsic such as recombinase ATP-binding and hydrolytic activities, others extrinsic such as ssDNA-binding proteins, mediator proteins, and DNA motor proteins. We examined dynamic behavior on multiple levels, including atomic- and filament-level structural changes associated with ATP binding and hydrolysis as evidenced in crystal structures, as well as subunit binding and dissociation events driven by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined the biochemical properties of recombination proteins from four model systems (T4 phage, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Homo sapiens), demonstrating how their properties are tailored for the context-specific requirements in these diverse species. We proposed that the presynaptic filament has evolved to rely on multiple external factors for increased multilevel regulation of HR processes in genomes with greater structural and sequence complexity.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Human BRCA2 protein performs the classic RMP function of loading RAD51 protein onto RPA-covered ssDNA (Jensen et al. 2010; Liu et al. 2010). It appears that BRCA2 has superseded RAD52 as the major RMP used for presynpatic filament assembly and to promote DNA pairing in humans (Liu et al. 2011a). Unlike RAD52, BRCA2 does not promote the annealing of complementary RPA-covered ssDNA strands (Jensen et al. 2010). "
ABSTRACT: The formation of heteroduplex DNA is a central step in the exchange of DNA sequences via homologous recombination, and in the accurate repair of broken chromosomes via homology-directed repair pathways. In cells, heteroduplex DNA largely arises through the activities of recombination proteins that promote DNA-pairing and annealing reactions. Classes of proteins involved in pairing and annealing include RecA-family DNA-pairing proteins, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, recombination mediator proteins, annealing proteins, and nucleases. This review explores the properties of these pairing and annealing proteins, and highlights their roles in complex recombination processes including the double Holliday junction (DhJ) formation, synthesis-dependent strand annealing, and single-strand annealing pathways-DNA transactions that are critical both for genome stability in individual organisms and for the evolution of species. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 02/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a016444 · 8.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Across the evolutionary spectrum, living organisms depend on high-fidelity DNA replication and recombination mechanisms to maintain genome stability and thus to avoid mutation and disease. The repair of severe lesions in the DNA such as double-strand breaks or stalled replication forks requires the coordinated activities of both the homologous recombination (HR) and DNA replication machineries. Growing evidence indicates that so-called "accessory proteins" in both systems are essential for the effective coupling of recombination to replication which is necessary to restore genome integrity following severe DNA damage. In this article we review the major processes of homology-directed DNA repair (HDR), including the double Holliday Junction (dHJ), synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), break-induced replication (BIR), and error-free lesion bypass pathways. Each of these pathways involves the coupling of a HR event to DNA synthesis. We highlight two major classes of accessory proteins in recombination and replication that facilitate HDR: Recombination mediator proteins exemplified by T4 UvsY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52, and human BRCA2; and DNA helicases/translocases exemplified by T4 Gp41/Gp59, E. coli DnaB and PriA, and eukaryotic Mcm2-7, Rad54, and Mph1. We illustrate how these factors help to direct the flow of DNA and protein-DNA intermediates on the pathway from a double-strand break or stalled replication fork to a high-fidelity recombination-dependent replication apparatus that can accurately repair the damage.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/2011; 112(10):2672-82. DOI:10.1002/jcb.23211 · 3.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that administration of oxidized oils increases gene expression and activities of various enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and stress response in the liver of rats and guinea pigs. As these genes are controlled by nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), we investigated the hypothesis that feeding of oxidized fats causes an activation of that transcription factor in the liver which in turn activates the expression of antioxidant, cytoprotective and detoxifying genes. Twenty four crossbred pigs were allocated to two groups of 12 pigs each and fed nutritionally adequate diets with either fresh rapeseed oil (fresh fat group) or oxidized rapeseed oil prepared by heating at a temperature of 175°C for 72 h (oxidized fat group). After 29 days of feeding, pigs of the oxidized fat group had a markedly increased nuclear concentration of the transcription factor Nrf2 and a higher activity of cellular superoxide dismutase and T4-UDP glucuronosyltransferase in liver than the fresh fat group (P < 0.05). In addition, transcript levels of antioxidant and phase II genes in liver, like superoxide dismutase 1, heme oxygenase 1, glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, microsomal glutathione-S-transferase 1, UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in the liver were higher in the oxidized fat group than in the fresh fat group (P < 0.05). Moreover, pigs of the oxidized fat group had an increased hepatic nuclear concentration of the transcription factor NF-κB which is also an important transcription factor mediating cellular stress response. The present study shows for the first time that administration of an oxidized fat activates the Nrf2 in the liver of pigs which likely reflects an adaptive mechanism to prevent cellular oxidative damage. Activation of the NF-κB pathway might also contribute to this effect of oxidized fat.Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2012; 11(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-11-31 · 2.22 Impact Factor