Synergistic effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on increase of neurogenesis induced by pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus.
ABSTRACT We previously observed that pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation without any neuronal damage in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor which serves as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression, on pyridoxine-induced neural proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the mouse dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate (300 mg/kg, subcutaneously), pyridoxine (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), or combination with sodium butyrate were administered to 8-week-old mice twice a day and once a day, respectively, for 14 days. The administration of sodium butyrate significantly increased acetyl-histone H3 levels in the dentate gyrus. Sodium butyrate alone did not show the significant increase of cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. But, pyridoxine alone significantly increased cell proliferation. Sodium butyrate in combination with pyridoxine robustly enhanced cell proliferation and neurogenesis induced by the increase of neural proliferation in the dentate gyrus, showing that sodium butyrate treatment distinctively enhanced development of neuroblast dendrites. These results indicate that an inhibition of HDAC synergistically promotes neurogenesis induced by a pyridoxine and increase of neural proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: The continuous incorporation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus raises exciting questions about memory and learning, and has inspired new computational models to understand the function of adult neurogenesis. These theoretical approaches suggest distinct roles for new neurons as they slowly integrate into the existing dentate gyrus network: immature adult-born neurons seem to function as pattern integrators of temporally adjacent events, thereby enhancing pattern separation for events separated in time; whereas maturing adult-born neurons possibly contribute to pattern separation by being more amenable to learning new information, leading to dedicated groups of granule cells that respond to experienced environments. We review these hypothesized functions and supporting empirical research and point to new directions for future theoretical efforts.Trends in Cognitive Sciences 07/2010; 14(7):325-37. · 16.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is known that the number of newly generated neurons is increased in the young and adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) after transient brain ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether increase in neurogenesis in the adult DG induced by ischemic stroke is transient or sustained. We here reported that from 2 weeks to 6 months after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), there were more doublecortin positive (DCX+) cells in the ipsilateral compared to the sham-control and contralateral DG of the adult rat. After the S-phase marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 days after MCAO to label newly generated cells, a large number of BrdU-labeled neuroblasts differentiated into mature granular neurons. These BrdU-labeled neurons survived for at least 6 months. When BrdU was injected 6 weeks after injury, there were still more newly generated neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the ipsilateral DG. Altogether, our data indicate that transient brain ischemia initiates a prolonged increase in neurogenesis and promotes the normal development of the newly generated neurons in the adult DG.Neuroscience Letters 11/2010; 488(1):70-5. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Manic-depressive illness has been conceptualized as a neurochemical illness. However, brain imaging and postmortem studies reveal gray-matter reductions, as well as neuronal and glial atrophy and loss in discrete brain regions of manic-depressive patients. The roles of such cerebral morphological deficits in the neuropathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms of manic-depressive illness are unknown. Valproate (2-propylpentanoate) is a commonly used mood stabilizer. The ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway is used by neurotrophic factors to regulate neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal survival. We found that chronic treatment of rats with valproate increased levels of activated phospho-ERK44/42 in neurons of the anterior cingulate, a region in which we found valproate-induced increases in expression of an ERK pathway-regulated gene, bcl-2. Valproate time and concentration dependently increased activated phospho-ERK44/42 and phospho-RSK1 (ribosomal S6 kinase 1) levels in cultured cortical cells. These increases were attenuated by Raf and MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase) inhibitors. Although valproate affects the functions of GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), its effects on the ERK pathway were not fully mimicked by selective inhibitors of GSK-3 or HDAC. Similar to neurotrophic factors, valproate enhanced ERK pathway-dependent cortical neuronal growth. Valproate also promoted neural stem cell proliferation-maturation (neurogenesis), demonstrated by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and double staining of BrdU with nestin, Tuj1, or the neuronal nuclei marker NeuN (neuronal-specific nuclear protein). Chronic treatment with valproate enhanced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Together, these data demonstrate that valproate activates the ERK pathway and induces ERK pathway-mediated neurotrophic actions. This cascade of events provides a potential mechanism whereby mood stabilizers alleviate cerebral morphometric deficits associated with manic-depressive illness.Journal of Neuroscience 08/2004; 24(29):6590-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor