Structure of QnrB1, a plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance factor.
ABSTRACT QnrB1 is a plasmid-encoded pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP) that confers a moderate degree of resistance to fluoroquinolones. Its gene was cloned into an expression vector with an N-terminal polyhistidine tag, and the protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The structure of QnrB1 was determined by a combination of trypsinolysis, surface mutagenesis, and single anomalous dispersion phasing. QnrB1 folds as a right-handed quadrilateral β-helix with a highly asymmetric dimeric structure typical of PRP-topoisomerase poison resistance factors. The threading of pentapeptides into the β-helical fold is interrupted by two noncanonical PRP sequences that produce outward projecting loops that interrupt the regularity of the PRP surface. Deletion of the larger upper loop eliminated the protective effect of QnrB1 on DNA gyrase toward inhibition by quinolones, whereas deletion of the smaller lower loop drastically reduced the protective effect. These loops are conserved among all plasmid-based Qnr variants (QnrA, QnrC, QnrD, and QnrS) and some chromosomally encoded Qnr varieties. A mechanism in which PRP-topoisomerase poison resistance factors bind to and disrupt the quinolone-DNA-gyrase interaction is proposed.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, several plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes conferring low levels of quinolone resistance have been discovered. To evaluate the temporal change in the prevalence of PMQR genes over a decade in a tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea, we selected every fifth isolate of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and every third isolate of Enterobacter cloacae between 1998 and 2001 and between 2005 and 2006 from a collection of blood isolates. Six PMQR genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA] were screened by multiplex PCR and then confirmed by direct sequencing, and the aac(6')-Ib-positive PCR products were digested with BtsCI to identify the aac(6')-Ib-cr variant. Of 461 isolates, 37 (8%) had one of the six PMQR genes; 13 (5%) of 261 E. coli strains, 13 (10%) of 135 K. pneumoniae strains, and 11 (17%) of 65 E. cloacae strains. qnrB was the most common PMQR gene and was found as early as 1998, whereas qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA emerged after 2000. None of the isolates carried qnrA or qnrC. Ciprofloxacin resistance increased over time (P < 0.001), and the overall prevalence of PMQR genes tended to increase (P = 0.20). PMQR-positive isolates had significantly higher ciprofloxacin resistance and multidrug resistance rates (P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). The increasing frequency of ciprofloxacin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae was associated with an increasing prevalence of PMQR genes, and this change involved an increase in the diversity of the PMQR genes and also an increase in the prevalence of the mutations in gyrA, parC, or both in PMQR-positive strains but not PMQR-negative strains.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2009; 53(2):639-45. · 4.84 Impact Factor