Gene profiling of the rat medial collateral ligament during early healing using microarray analysis
ABSTRACT Ligament heals in a synchronized and complex series of events. The remodeling process may last months or years. Experimental evidence suggests the damaged ligament does not recover its normal functional properties. Specific mechanisms to prevent scar formation and to regenerate the original mechanical function remain elusive but likely involve regulation of creeping substitution. Creeping substitution creates a larger hypercellular, hypervascular, and disorganized granulation tissue mass that results in an inefficient and nonregenerative wound healing process for the ligament. Control of creeping substitution may limit the extent of this tissue compromise and reduce the time necessary for healing. The objective of this study is to better understand the mechanism behind scar formation by identifying the extracellular matrix factors and other unique genes of interest differentially expressed during rat ligament healing via microarray. For this study, rat medial collateral ligaments were either surgically transected or left intact. Ligaments were collected at day 3 or 7 postinjury and used for microarray, quantitative PCR, and/or immunohistochemistry. Results were compared with the normal intact ligament. We demonstrate that early ligament healing is characterized by the modulation of several inflammatory and extracellular matrix factors during the first week of injury. Specifically, a number of matrix metalloproteinases and collagens are differentially and significantly expressed during early ligament healing. Additionally, we demonstrate the modulation of three novel genes, periostin, collagen-triple helix repeat containing-1, and serine protease 35 in our ligament healing model. Together, control of granulation tissue creeping substitution and subsequent downstream scar formation is likely to involve these factors.
SourceAvailable from: Connie S Chamberlain[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ligament healing follows a series of complex coordinated events involving various cell types, cytokines, as well as other factors, producing a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native tissue. Macrophages provide an ongoing source of cytokines to modulate inflammatory cell adhesion and migration as well as fibroblast proliferation. Studying interleukins inherent to ligament healing during peak macrophage activation and angiogenesis may elucidate inflammatory mediators involved in subsequent scar formation. Herein, we used a rat healing model assayed after surgical transection of their medial collateral ligaments (MCLs). On days 3 and 7 post-injury, ligaments were collected and used for microarray analysis. Of the 12 significantly modified interleukins, components of the interleukin-1 family were significantly up-regulated. We therefore examined the influence of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) on MCL healing. Transected rat MCLs received PBS or IL-1Ra at the time of surgery. Inhibition of IL-1 activation decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12, IL-2, and IFN-γ), myofibroblasts, and proliferating cells, as well as increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), endothelial cells/blood vessel lumen, M2 macrophages, and granulation tissue size without compromising the mechanical properties. These results support the concept that IL-1Ra modulates MCL-localized granulation tissue components and cytokine production to create a transient environment that is less inflammatory. Overall, IL-1Ra may have therapeutic potential early in the healing cascade by stimulating the M2 macrophages and altering the granulation tissue components. However, the single dose of IL-1Ra used in this study was insufficient to maintain the more regenerative early response. Due to the transient influence on most of the healing components tested, IL-1Ra may have greater therapeutic potential with sustained delivery.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71631. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071631 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Ligaments have limited regenerative potential and as a consequence, repair is protracted and results in a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native ligament. We previously reported that a single injection of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) delivered at the time of injury, decreased the number of M2 macrophage-associated inflammatory cytokines. Based on these results, we hypothesized that IL-1Ra administered after injury and closer to peak inflammation (as would occur clinically), would more effectively decrease inflammation and thereby improve healing. Since IL-1Ra has a short half-life, we also investigated the effect of multiple injections. The objective of this study was to elucidate healing of a medial collateral ligament (MCL) with either a single IL-1Ra injection delivered one day after injury or with multiple injections of IL-1Ra on days 1, 2, 3, and 4. One day after MCL injury, rats received either single or multiple injections of IL-1Ra or PBS. Tissue was then collected at days 5 and 11. Both single and multiple IL-1Ra injections reduced inflammatory cytokines, but did not change mechanical behavior. A single injection of IL-1Ra also reduced the number of myofibroblasts and increased type I procollagen. Multiple IL-1Ra doses provided no additive response and, in fact, reduced the M2 macrophages. Based on these results, a single dose of IL-1Ra was better at reducing the MCL-derived inflammatory cytokines compared to multiple injections. The changes in type I procollagen and myofibroblasts further suggest a single injection of IL-1Ra enhanced repair of the ligament but not sufficiently to improve functional behavior.Connective tissue research 03/2014; DOI:10.3109/03008207.2014.906408 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: It was reported that not only ACL but also the synovium may be the major regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in synovial fluids after ACL injury. In order to further confirm whether synovium is capable of regulating the microenvironment in the process of ACL injury, the complicated microenvironment of joint cavity after ACL injury was mimicked and the combined effects of mechanical injury and inflammatory factor [tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)] on expressions of lysyl oxidases (LOXs) and MMPs in synovial fibroblasts derived from normal human synovium were studied. METHODS: Human normal knee joint synovial fibroblasts were stimulated for 1-6 h with mechanical stretch and inflammatory factor (TNF-α). Total RNA was harvested, reverse transcribed and assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the expression of LOXs and MMP-1, 2, 3 messenger RNAs. MMP-2 activity was assayed from the collected culture media samples using zymography. RESULTS: Compared to control group, our results showed that 6 % physiological stretch increased MMP-2 and LOXs (except LOXL-3), decreased MMP-1 and MMP-3; injurious stretch (12 %) decreased LOXs (except LOXL-2)and increased MMP-1, 2 and 3; the combination of injurious stretch and TNF-α decreased LOXs and increased MMP-1, 2 and 3 in synovial fibroblasts in a synergistical manner. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that combination of mechanical injury and inflammatory factors up-regulated the expressions of MMPs and down-regulated the expressions of LOXs in synovial fibroblasts, eventually alter the balance of tissue healing. Thus, synovium may be involved in regulating the microenvironment of joint cavity. Based on the mechanism, early interventions to inhibit the production of MMPs or promote the production of LOXs in the synovial fibroblasts should be performed to facilitate the healing of tissue.Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 02/2013; 22(9). DOI:10.1007/s00167-013-2425-z · 2.84 Impact Factor