Kinetics of Immune Responses to Nasal Challenge With Meningococcal Polysaccharide One Year After Serogroup-C Glycoconjugate Vaccination

Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 06/2011; 52(11):1317-23. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir198
Source: PubMed


Recipients of serogroup-C glycoconjugate meningococcal vaccine (MCC) exhibit waning of serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers, but the rate of decline and the speed of their immunological memory in response to new meningococcal nasopharyngeal colonization are unknown.
In a prospective challenge study, we measured persistence of SBA and anti-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup-C (MenC) immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA in adults aged 18-39, 28 days and 12 months after receiving MCC. Volunteers were then challenged intranasally with 50 μg MenC polysaccharide to mimic meningococcal colonization, and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were measured.
All subjects had protective SBA titers (≥8) 28 days after MCC vaccination, but 12.3% and 20.2% had unprotective (<8) or low (<128) levels, respectively, after 12 months. Following rechallenge (12 months postvaccination) and measurement of antibody responses after 4, 7, and 10 days, rises in SBA titers were only observed in subjects with low (<128) or nonprotective (<8) prerechallenge SBA titers. In subjects with pre rechallenge SBA titers <8, the majority did not reach a protective SBA titer until 7 days post-rechallenge. MenC-specific IgG levels rose in both serum and saliva in correlation with SBA titers. No detectable rise in salivary IgA was observed.
In those individuals who fail to retain protective SBA 12 months after MCC, immunological memory fails to generate protective systemic and mucosal antibodies until 7 days post intranasal challenge with cognate meningococcal polysaccharide. This is likely too slow to protect from natural meningococcal infection. MCC vaccinees rely on persistence of antibody levels rather than immunological memory for sustained protection.

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Available from: Andrew William Heath, Oct 01, 2015
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    • "Therefore, the MenC-PS-specific IgA we found in serum and saliva were most likely fully dependent on the systemic response after vaccination. A recent study showed no salivary IgA response after nasal PS-challenge in young adults primed 1 year earlier with a parenteral MenCC vaccination [30], suggesting that primary MenCC vaccination may not induce local IgA memory B cells. Possibly, the systemic germinal center response evoked by parenteral (booster) vaccination induces the generation of plasma cells that secrete IgA into the circulation, together with a proportional part of plasmablasts that home to different sites throughout the body, including the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, with subsequent local secretion of IgA. "
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    ABSTRACT: In several countries large-scale immunization of children and young adults with Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines has induced long-standing herd protection. Salivary antibodies may play an important role in mucosal protection against meningococcal acquisition and carriage. To investigate antibody levels in (pre)adolescents primed 9 years earlier with a single dose of MenC-polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugated (MenC-TT) vaccine and the response to a booster vaccination, with special focus on age-related differences and the relation between salivary and serum antibody levels. Nine years after priming, healthy 10- (n=91), 12- (n=91) and 15-year-olds (n=86) received a MenC-TT booster vaccination. Saliva and serum samples were collected prior to and 1 month and 1 year after vaccination. MenC-polysaccharide(MenC-PS)-specific antibody levels were measured using a fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Before the booster, MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels in saliva and serum were low and correlated with age at priming. The booster induced a marked increase in salivary MenC-PS-specific IgG (>200-fold), but also in IgA (∼10-fold). One year after the booster, salivary IgG and IgA had remained above pre-booster levels in all age groups (∼20-fold and ∼3-fold, respectively), with persistence of highest levels in the 15-year-olds. MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels in saliva strongly correlated with the levels in serum. Parenteral MenC-TT booster vaccination induces a clear increase in salivary MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels and persistence of highest levels correlates with age. The strong correlation between serum and salivary antibody levels indicate that saliva may offer an easy and reliable tool for future antibody surveillance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 06/2015; 33(32). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.055 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Of the original 116 subjects, 89 returned 1 year later. As described previously [9] all subjects initially responded to vaccination but 11 subjects were found to have serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) levels that had dropped below the threshold of protection, with rabbit complement derived SBA titers r below 8 (SBA<8) [13], [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the success of conjugate vaccination against meningococcal group C (MenC) disease, post-vaccination, some individuals still exhibit rapid waning of initially protective bactericidal antibody levels. The mechanism of this relative loss of humoral protection remains undetermined. In this report we have investigated the relationship between T- and B-cell activation and co-stimulation and the loss of protective antibody titers. We have found that healthy volunteers who lose protective MenC antibody levels one year after receipt of glycoconjugate vaccine exhibit no detectable cellular defect in polyclonal B- or T-cell activation, proliferation or the B-memory pool. This suggests that the processes underlying the more rapid loss of antibody levels are independent of defects in either initial T- or B-cell activation.
    PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31160. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031160 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colonization of the nasopharyngeal mucosa by meningococcus and other polysaccharide (PS)-encapsulated bacteria precedes invasion. PS-conjugate vaccines induce PS-specific B-cell memory (B(MEM)) and also prevent colonization, thus blocking person-to-person transmission, generating herd protection. However, in isolation the B(MEM) are unable to sustain immunity. Furthermore, the duration of herd protection the vaccines induce appears limited. We demonstrate that, despite the persistence of PS-specific B(MEM), the population is not maintained within the nasopharynx. Although booster immunization results in the transient appearance of PS-specific B(MEM) within the mucosa, this reflects the re-circulation of systemic B(MEM) through the site rather than the generation of resident mucosal B(MEM). The induction of sustained PS-specific B(MEM) in the nasopharynx would allow the population to be activated by colonization, thus inhibiting subsequent invasion. It would also be expected to boost local mucosal immunity, thus extending herd protection. Strategies to generate PS-specific B(MEM) in the mucosa warrant further investigation.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 18 July 2012; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.70.
    Mucosal Immunology 07/2012; 6(2). DOI:10.1038/mi.2012.70 · 7.37 Impact Factor
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